(The Book of Redemption)
Name of the Book
“Exodus” is a Latin word derived from the Greek exodos, the name given to the book by those who translated it into the Greek Septuagint (LXX). The word means “exit,” “departure.”
Theme and Purpose
Two themes prevail in Exodus: (1) Redemption as pictured in the Passover, and (2) deliverance from the bondage of Egypt as seen in the Exodus out of Egypt and crossing the Red Sea.
“Redeem,” used nine times (6:6; 13:13; 15:13; 21:8; 34:20).
After nearly four hundreds years of growth in Egypt, Exodus continues the history of God’s chosen people, the nation of Israel, and describes their deliverance out of Egypt and their development as a nation, actually, a theocracy under God. It describes the birth, history, and call of Moses by God to lead the people out of their Egyptian bondage and into the promised land, the land of Canaan. Through the Passover lamb, the sparing of the firstborn, along with the miracles of the ten plagues, and the crossing of the Red Sea, God showed His people that He was not only more powerful than any Egyptian Pharaoh, but was the sovereign LORD, Yahweh, the God of redemption and revelation. Once the people had crossed the Red Sea and arrived in the wilderness or desert, God gave them His righteous law and declared that they were a treasured possession to Him and were to be a kingdom of priests, a holy nation as a testimony to the nations (Ex. 19:4-7). This holy law, including the Ten Commandments, demonstrated God’s holiness, taught them how to love God and one another, but in the process, it also demonstrated how all fall short of the holiness of God and need a way of access to God that provides forgiveness. This was provided for in the tabernacle, the sacrifices, and the levitical priest- hood.
Chapters 12-14 record the redemption of Israel from slavery in fulfillment of God’s promises; delivered from slavery by blood (the Passover lamb) and by power (the parting of the Red Sea).
6:6 Say, "therefore, to the sons of Israel, ‘I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from un-
der the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgment" (see also 20:2).
19:5-6 ‘Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall
be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; 6 and you shall be
to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel.
Moses, Aaron, Miriam, Pharaoh.
Christ as Seen in Exodus
While Exodus contains no direct prophecy of Christ, there are a number of beautiful types of the Savior.
(1) In many ways, Moses is a type of Christ. Deuteronomy 18:15 shows that Moses, as a prophet, anticipates Christ. Both are kinsman-redeemers who were endangered in infancy, renounced their power to serve others, and functioned as mediators, lawgivers, and deliverers.
(2) The Passover is a very specific type of Christ as the sinless Lamb of God
(John 1:29, 36; 1 Cor.5:7).
(3) The Seven Feasts, each of which portray some aspect of the Savior.
(4) The Exodus, which Paul connects with baptism, pictures our identification with
Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection (1 Cor. 10:1-2; Rom. 6:2-3).
(5) The Manna and Water are both portrayed as pictures of Christ (John 6:31-35, 48-63;
1 Cor. 10:3-4).
(6) The Tabernacle portrays the Savior in its material, colors, furniture, arrangement, and the offerings sacrificed there (Heb. 9:1-10:18).
(7) The High Priest quite clearly foreshadows the person and ministry of Christ
(Heb. 4:14-16; 9:11-12, 24-28).
Exodus easily divides into two sections: Redemption and Revelation
I. Redemption From Egypt (1-18)
A. In Bondage (Subjection) (1-12)
B. Out of Bondage (Redemption by blood and power) (12-14)
C. Journeying to Sinai (Education) (15-18)
II. Revelation From God (19-40)
A. The Giving of the Law (19-24)
B. The Institution of the Tabernacle (25-31)
C. The Breaking of the Law (32-34)
D. The Construction of the Tabernacle (35-40)