The Clear Word 

A Ministry Of Mid-State Ministries  


Old Testament Survey
Lesson Ten

(David’s Reign; Expansion of the Nation)

See comments under 1 Samuel.

930 B.C. and later.

See comments under 1 Samuel.

Theme and Purpose:

With no real break in the story of Israel’s kingdom, 2 Samuel continues the narrative of the beginning of Israel’s kingdom beginning with Saul’s death and continuing with the reign of David. It is distinctively about the forty-year reign of David (5:4-5) and traces his reign through his triumphs and tragedies, which include his sins of adultery, murder, and their consequences on his family and the nation. The theme, as 2 Samuel recounts David’s reign, could be summarized as “how sin turns triumphs into troubles.” Whereas the kingdom was established under Saul, it is expanded by David. Saul’s kingdom gave stabilization to Israel from the time of the judges, but David’s reign brought growth or expansion. In the typical fashion of the Bible which candidly tells the story of its leaders with warts and all, 2 Samuel portrays the Good,
the Bad, and the Ugly of the life of King David.

Key Word:

Since the name of David occurs some 788 times in the History books, his name clearly becomes the key word.

Key Verses:

7:12-16 When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up
your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom.
13 He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for-
ever. 14 I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I
will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men, 15 but My loving-
kindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from be-
fore you. 16 And your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your
throne shall be established forever.12:12-14 “‘Indeed you did it secretly, but I will do this thing before all Israel, and under the sun.’” 13 Then David said to Nathan, “I have sinned against the LORD.” And Nathan said to David, “The LORD also has taken away your sin; you shall not die. 14 However, because by this deed you have given occasion to the enemies of the LORD to blaspheme, the child also that is born to you shall surely die.”

Key Chapters:

Chapter 5 is a key chapter in that it records David’s reign as king over all Israel, but chapters 11-12 are perhaps the more pivotal chapters in that they record David’s sin with Bathsheba and her husband Uriah, his rebuke by Nathan the prophet, and the discipline that came on David’s house as a result.

Key People:

David, Bathsheba, Nathan, Absolom, Joab, Amnon, and Ahithophel.

Christ as Seen in 2 Samuel:

With the exception of his sins, David remains a type of Christ as the king of Israel. It is in this book that God establishes the Davidic Covenant which ultimately has its fulfillment in the person of Christ.


Second Samuel naturally falls into three sections: The Triumphs of David (1-10), the Transgressions of David (11), and the Troubles of David (12-24).

I. The Triumphs of David (1-10)
    A. The Coronation of the King (1:1-5:6)
    B. The Consolidation of the Kingdom (5:7-6:23)
    C. The Covenant Concerning the Kingdom (7:1-29)
    D. The Conquests of the King (8:1-10:19)

II. The Transgressions of the King (11:1-27)
    A. The Adultery by the King (11:1-13)
    B. The Murder Caused by the King (11:14-27)

III. The Troubles of the King (12:1-24:25)
    A. Troubles at Home (12:1-13:36)
    B. Troubles in the Kingdom (13:37-24:25)
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