The genealogies of Matthew Chapter 1 gives us the answer to a very
important question. That being, what is the times laps of a Biblical
In the Old Testament, Numbers 32:13 & Psalms 95:10, have led
many to believe that a Biblical Generation is forty years in duration.
Numbers 32:13...And the LORD's
anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the
wilderness forty years, until all the generation, that had done evil in
the sight of the LORD, was consumed.
Psalms 95:10...Forty years long was I
grieved with this generation, and said, It is a people that do err in
their heart, and they have not known my ways:
These two verses do not discuss generations. These two verses discuss life spans.
However, Matthew Chapter 1 may give us new insight which would make a generational calculation much more accurate.
that in Matthew 1:1 & 2, that the genealogical count of years
begins with Abraham. And that in Matthew 1:18, the genealogical count
ends with the birth of Jesus Christ.
When doing the calculation of years, we see that from Abraham to Jesus is a total of two thousand, one hundred, sixty one years.
Then in Matthew 1:17
that the genealogical distance from Abraham to Jesus is broken down to
three sets of fourteen for a total of forty two generations. When one
takes the two thousand, one hundred, sixty one years from Abraham to
Jesus, and divides it by the forty two generations from Abraham to
Jesus, you will come to fifty one years, six months, or round it off to
fifty two years.
Upon using the fifty two year calculation, you will find that more
of you Biblical/Theological calculations should prove more accurate.
The English word begat comes from the Greek word gennaw/gennao. It
means to procreate, as a father or sire; to generate; to produce; as,
poverty can beget crime.
The purpose of the genealogy in Matthew is because, since Matthew
wants to present Jesus as the King of the Jews, a king must have a royal
bloodline genealogy in order to prove his rightful assent to the
In verse 1, the English word book comes from the Greek word
bibloV/biblos. It has to do with an important manuscript. A manuscript
of great value. In this case, it would be the manuscript with contains
the real genealogy of the Lord Jesus Christ proving Him to be the
rightful King of Israel. Making Him the true Messiah.
One of the humorous pitfalls of being a research theologian and
philosopher of theology, is that we always are asking why? And in most
cases, it is about why some Bible character did the blunderbuss things
that they did? However, in this case, my question is about why God a
certain Greek word to describe the English word generations?
It would seem more logical, in the consistency of Greek text, that
God would have chosen the Greek word genealogia/genealogia. It means
tracing ones royal roots through family manuscripts and genealogies.
However, in the case of Matthew 1:1, God has chosen the Greek word
genesia/genesia.. This Greek word has to do with tracing ones genealogy
through the birthdays of the family members in question.
Why would God do it this way? Is there a correct answer to this
question? The answer is not only yes, but the answer is found in verse
17. We will cover this when getting to verse 17. Rest assured, there
is a very beautiful reason why God chose the wording which He did.
Then verse 1 finishes with the start of the genealogical trace of
Jesus Christ, that through the line of David, Jesus' genealogy goes all
the way back to Abraham.
name David means Beloved. David was the eighth and youngest son of
Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in
humble life. His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the
Nahash of II Samuel 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know
that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face as per I
Samuel 16:12 & 17:42.
His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on
the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history, doubtless
he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged, with his shepherd's
flute, while he drank in the many lessons taught him by the varied
scenes spread around him. His first recorded exploits were his
encounters with the wild beasts of the field. He mentions that with his
own unaided hand he slew a lion and also a bear, when they came out
against his flock, beating them to death in open conflict with his club
as in I Samuel 17:34-35.
While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged
with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem, having
been guided thither by divine direction in I Samuel 16:1-13. There he
offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel and Jesse's family
to the sacrificial meal. Among all who appeared before him he failed to
discover the one he sought. David was sent for, and the prophet
immediately recognized him as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul,
who was now departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the
kingdom. He accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the
anointing oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the
Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the
Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" in I Samuel 16:13-14.
Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp
the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange melancholy
dejection. He played before the king so skilfully that Saul was greatly
cheered, and began to entertain great affection for the young shepherd.
After this he went home to Bethlehem. But he soon again came into
prominence. The armies of the Philistines and of Israel were in battle
array in the valley of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and
David was sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who
were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in the camp
of Israel, David, now about twenty years of age, was made aware of the
state of matters when the champion of the Philistines, Goliath of Gath,
came forth to defy Israel. David took his sling, and with a well-trained
aim threw a stone "out of the brook," which struck the giant's
forehead, so that he fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and
slew him, and cut off his head with his own sword in I Samuel 17. The
result was a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the
Philistines to the gates of Gath and Ekron.
David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened
Saul's jealousy in I Samuel 18:6-16, which he showed in various ways.
He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various stratagems
sought his death in I Samuel 18-30. The deep-laid plots of the enraged
king, who could not fail to observe that David "prospered exceedingly,"
all proved futile, and only endeared the young hero the more to the
people, and very specially to Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and
David a life-long warm friendship was formed.
A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled to
Ramah in I Samuel 19:12-18, to Samuel, who received him, and he dwelt
among the sons of the prophets, who were there under Samuel's training.
It is supposed by some that the sixth, seventh, and eleventh Psalms were
composed by him at this time. This place was only 3 miles from the
residence of Saul, who soon discovered whither the fugitive had gone,
and tried ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless
effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward David in I
Samuel 20, who, being made aware of the fact, saw no hope of safety but
in flight to a distance. We accordingly find him first at Nob in
21:1-9.and then at Gath, the chief city of the Philistines. The king of
the Philistines would not admit him into his service, as he expected
that he would, and David accordingly now betook himself to the
stronghold of Adullam 22:1-4 & I Chronicles 12:8-18. Here in a
short time 400 men gathered around him and acknowledged him as their
leader. It was at this time that David, amid the harassment and perils
of his position, cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of
the well of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the
lines of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed
in II Samuel 23:13-17, but which he would not drink.
In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David,
Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family at Nob,
"persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of eighty-five persons,
who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite. The sad tidings of the
massacre were brought to David by Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only
one who escaped.
Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was harassed
by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it in I Samuel
23:1-14, and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the strongholds in the
"hill country" of Judah. While encamped there, in the forest in the
district of Ziph, he was visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of
encouragement in 23:16-18. The two now parted never to meet again. Saul
continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at this
time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the western shore
of the Dead Sea in I Samuel 23:29.
Here Saul, who still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped,
through the generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by
what David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and
David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he maintained
himself by contributions gathered from the district. Here occurred the
incident connected with Nabal and his wife Abigail in I Samuel 25, whom
David married after Nabal's death.
Saul again went forth in I Samuel 26 in pursuit of David, who
had hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in the
wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his
forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence for the
way in which he had treated David, and predicting his elevation to the
Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving from
place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought refuge
among the Philistines in I Samuel 27. He was welcomed by the king, who
assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived among his
followers for some time as an independent chief engaged in frequent war
with the Amalekites and other tribes on the south of Judah.
Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against Saul;
but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of David's loyalty,
and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which he found to his dismay
may had been pillaged and burnt during his brief absence. David pursued
after the raiders, the Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his
return to Ziklag tidings reached him of Saul's death in II Samuel 1. An
Amalekite brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet.
David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who had been
defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a beautiful elegy,
the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a "lamentation over Saul
and over Jonathan his son" in II Samuel 1:18-27. It bore the title of
"The Bow," and was to be taught to the children, that the memory of Saul
and Jonathan might be preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in
the book of Jasher."
David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for Hebron
under divine direction in II Samuel 2:1-4. There they were cordially
welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was now about thirty
years of age.
But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took
Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to Mahanaim, and
there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war in Israel. The first
encounter between the two opposing armies, led on the one side by Abner,
and on the other by Joab, took place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted
in the defeat of Abner. Other encounters, however, between Israel and
Judah followed in II Samuel 3:1-5, but still success was on the side of
David. For the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron.
Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his advancement; but
was treacherously put to death by Joab in revenge for his having slain
his brother Asahel at Gibeon in 3:22-39. This was greatly to David's
regret. He mourned for the death of Abner. Shortly after this
Ish-bosheth was also treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of
Beeroth; and there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all
Israel in 4:1-12.
David king over all Israel in II Samuel 5:1-5 & I Chronicles
11:1-3. The elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered
allegiance to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest
enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and sought
out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron, as the capital
of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite fortress, "the
stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also Jebus. This David took
from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's capital, and established here
his residence, and afterwards built for himself a palace by the aid of
Tyrian tradesmen. The Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind
of truce, now made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a
place afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim.
Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by him. He
thus delivered Israel from their enemies.
David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his new
capital in II Samuel 6. It was in the house of Abinadab at
Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been for many
years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it home in I Samuel 6
& 7. In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it was a divine
ordinance that only the Levites should handle the ark, Numbers 4, who
had put forth his hand to steady the ark when the cart in which it was
being conveyed shook by reason of the roughness of the road, David
stayed the procession, and conveyed the ark into the house of Obed-edom,
a Philistine from Gath. After three months David brought the ark from
the house of Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Here it was placed in a new
tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose. About seventy
years had passed since it had stood in the tabernacle at Shiloh. The old
tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at which Zadok ministered. David now, in I
Chronicles 16, carefully set in order all the ritual of divine worship
at Jerusalem, along with Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era
began. The service of praise was for the first time introduced into
public worship. Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."
David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which
greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom in II Samuel 8. In a few
years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of Egypt, and
from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was under his sway in II
David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He
ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the spoils
of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he fell, and his
character became stained with the sin of adultery in II Samuel
11:2-27. It has been noted as characteristic of the Bible that while his
military triumphs are recorded in a few verses, the sad story of his
fall is given in detail, a story full of warning, and therefore
recorded. This crime, in the attempt to conceal it, led to anoter. He
was guilty of murder. Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of
the Gibborim, the corps of heros, 23:39,
was, by his order, "set in the front of the hottest battle" at the
siege of Rabbah, in order that he might be put to death. Nathan the
prophet, II Samuel 7:1-17 & 12:1-23, was sent by God to bring home
his crimes to the conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true
penitent. He bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second
and fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and his
Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born son
died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth to a second
son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately succeeded him on the
throne, II Samuel 12:24-25.
Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David
formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he was not
permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a man of war.
God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious message, II Samuel
7:1-16. On receiving it he went into the sanctuary, the tent where the
ark was, and sat before the Lord, and poured out his heart in words of
devout thanksgiving (18-29). The building of the temple was reserved for
his son Solomon, who would be a man of peace , I Chronicles 22:9 &
A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of great
prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His eldest son
Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was guilty of a great and
shameful crime, II Samuel 13. This was the beginning of the disasters
of his later years. After two years Absalom terribly avenged the crime
against Tamar, and put Amnon to death. This brought sore trouble to
David's heart. Absalom, afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to
Geshur beyond Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was
brought back through the intrigue of Joab, II Samuel 14.
After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three years'
famine, II Samuel 21:1-14. This was soon after followed by a
pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's sinful
pride in numbering the people, II Samuel 24, in which no fewer than
70,000 perished in the space of three days.
Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly
lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular
sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of the
plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of jealously that had
begun to manifest itself among some of the tribes against David.
Absalom, taking full advantage of this state of things, gradually gained
over the people, and at length openly rebelled against his father, and
usurped the throne. Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The
revolt began in Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there
proclaimed king. David was now in imminent danger, and he left
Jerusalem, II Samuel 15:13-20, and once more became a fugitive. It was a
momentous day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a
fulness of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament
history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east of
Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks the rival
armies were mustered and organized. They met in hostile array at the
wood of Ephraim, II Samuel 18:1-8, Absalom's army was defeated, and
himself put to death by the hand of Joab (9-18). The tidings of the
death of his rebellious son filled the heart of David with the most
poignant grief. He "went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept,"
giving utterance to the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for
thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David
returned to Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy
dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel,
19:41-43. Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of Israel. He
was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to death, and so the
revolt came to an end.
After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and
that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life passed
away. During those years he seems to have been principally engaged in
accumulating treasures of every kind for the great temple at Jerusalem,
which it was reserved to his successor to build, I Chronicles
22:28-29, a house which was to be "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of
glory throughout all countries," 22:5. The exciting and laborious life
he had spent, and the dangers and trials through which he had passed,
had left him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that
his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy broke out
as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured Adonijah. The chiefs
of his party met at the "Fuller's spring," in the valley of Kidron, to
proclaim him king; but Nathan hastened on a decision on the part of
David in favour of Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed.
Solomon was brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on
his father's throne, I Kings 1:11-53. David's last words are a grand
utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his joyful
confidence in his gracious covenant promises, II Samuel 23:1-7.
After a reign of forty years and six months, II Samuel 5:5 & I
Chronicles 3:4, David died, 1015 B.C., at the age of seventy years,
"and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed out on
Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a type of the Messiah, I Samuel 16:13. The
book of Psalms commonly bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from
the circumstance that he was the largest contributor, about eighty
psalms, to the collection.
"The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had lived
in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a sure sign that
the spirit of his government had been throughly loyal to the higher aims
of the theocracy. The nation had not been oppressed by him, but had
been left in the free enjoyment of its ancient liberties. As far as his
power went he had striven to act justly to all, II Samuel 8:15.
His weak indulgence to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had
been bitterly atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance
of his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem
and seven and a half at Hebron, II Samuel 5:5. Israel at his accession
had reached the lowest point of national depression; its new-born unity
rudely dissolved; its territory assailed by the Philistines. But he had
left it an imperial power, with dominions like those of Egypt or
Assyria. The sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death,
owned from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to
the Red Sea.
The name Abraham means father of a multitude. Till the age of
seventy, Abram sojourned among his kindred in his native country of
Chaldea which today is called Kuwait. He then, with his father and his
family and household, left the city of Ur in which he had hitherto
dwelt and went some three hundred miles north to Haran, where he abode
fifteen years. The cause of his migration was a call from God, Acts
7:2-4. There is no mention of this first call in the Old Testament; it
is implied, however, in Genesis 12. While they tarried at Haran, Terah,
Abram's father, died at the age of 205 years. Abram now received a
second and more definite call, accompanied by a promise from God in
Genesis 12:1-2; whereupon he took his departure, taking his nephew Lot
with him, "not knowing whither he went" Hebrews 11:8. He trusted
implicitly to the guidance of Him who had called him. Abram now, with a
large household of probably a thousand souls, entered on a migratory
life, and dwelt in tents. Passing along the valley of the Jabbok, in the
land of Canaan, he formed his first encampment at Sichem in Genesis
12:6, in the vale or oak-grove of Moreh, between Ebal on the north and
Gerizim on the south. Here he received the great promise, "I will make
of thee a great nation," Genesis 12:2-7. This promise comprehended not
only temporal but also spiritual blessings. It implied that he was the
chosen ancestor of the great Deliverer whose coming had been long ago
predicted in Genesis 3:15.
Soon after this, for some reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to
the mountain district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns
about two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah." He again
moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the Hebrews the
Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine, compelled to go down
into Egypt. This took place in the time of the Hyksos, a Semitic race
which now held the Egyptians in bondage. Here occurred that case of
deception on the part of Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of
Pharaoh Genesis12:18. Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him
with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country. He
returned to Canaan richer than when he left it, "in cattle, in silver,
and in gold" Genesis 12:8;13:2 & Psalms105:13- 14.
The whole party
then moved northward, and returned to their previous station near
Bethel. Here disputes arose between Lot's shepherds and those of Abram
about water and pasturage. Abram generously gave Lot his choice of the
pasture-ground. He chose the well-watered plain in which Sodom was
situated, and removed thither; and thus the uncle and nephew were
separated. Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a repetition of
the promises already made to him, and then removed to the plain or
"oak-grove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron. He finally settled here,
pitching his tent under a famous oak or terebinth tree, called "the oak
of Mamre" Genesis 13:18.
This was his third resting-place in the land. Some fourteen years
before this, while Abram was still in Chaldea, Palestine had been
invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who brought under tribute to him
the five cities in the plain to which Lot had removed. This tribute was
felt by the inhabitants of these cities to be a heavy burden, and after
twelve years they revolted. This brought upon them the vengeance of
Chedorlaomer, who had in league with him four other kings. He ravaged
the whole country, plundering the towns, and carrying the inhabitants
away as slaves. Among those thus treated was Lot. Hearing of the
disaster that had fallen on his nephew, Abram immediately gathered from
his own household a band of three hundred eighteen armed men, and being
joined by the Amoritish chiefs Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol, he pursued after
Chedorlaomer, and overtook him near the springs of the Jordan. They
attacked and routed his army, and pursued it over the range of
Anti-Libanus as far as to Hobah, near Damascus, and then returned,
bringing back all the spoils that had been carried away.
way of Salem/Jerusalem, the king of that place, Melchizedek, came forth
to meet them with refreshments. To him Abram presented a tenth of the
spoils, in recognition of his character as a priest of the most high God
Genesis 14:18-20. In a recently-discovered tablet, dated in the reign
of the grandfather of Amraphel Genesis 14:1, one of the witnesses is
called "the Amorite, the son of Abiramu," or Abram. Having returned to
his home at Mamre, the promises already made to him by God were repeated
and enlarged Genesis 13:14.
"The word of the Lord," an expression occurring here for the first
time, "came to him" Genesis15:1. He now understood better the future
that lay before the nation that was to spring from him. Sarai, now
seventy-five years old, in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take
Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as a concubine, intending that whatever child
might be born should be reckoned as her own. Ishmael was accordingly
thus brought up, and was regarded as the heir of these promises in
Genesis16. When Ishmael was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet
more explicitly and fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure
fulfilment of that purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from
Abram to Abraham in Genesis17:4-5, and the rite of circumcision was
instituted as a sign of the covenant. It was then announced that the
heir to these covenant promises would be the son of Sarai, though she
was now ninety years old; and it was directed that his name should be
Isaac. At the same time, in commemoration of the promises, Sarai's name
was changed to Sarah. On that memorable day of God's thus revealing his
design, Abraham and his son Ishmael and all the males of his house were
circumcised Genesis17. Three months after this, as Abraham sat in his
tent door, he saw three men approaching. They accepted his proffered
hospitality, and, seated under an oak-tree, partook of the fare which
Abraham and Sarah provided. One of the three visitants was none other
than the Lord, and the other two were angels in the guise of men.
Lord renewed on this occasion his promise of a son by Sarah, who was
rebuked for her unbelief. Abraham accompanied the three as they
proceeded on their journey. The two angels went on toward Sodom; while
the Lord tarried behind and talked with Abraham, making known to him the
destruction that was about to fall on that guilty city. The patriarch
interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city. But as not even ten
righteous persons were found in it, for whose sake the city would have
been spared, the threatened destruction fell upon it; and early next
morning Abraham saw the smoke of the fire that consumed it as the "smoke
of a furnace" in Genesis19:1-28. After fifteen years' residence at
Mamre, Abraham moved southward, and pitched his tent among the
Philistines, near to Gerar. Here occurred that sad instance of
prevarication on his part in his relation to Abimelech the King Genesis
Soon after this event, the patriarch left the vicinity of Gerar,
and moved down the fertile valley about 25 miles to Beer-sheba. It was
probably here that Isaac was born, Abraham being now an hundred years
old. A feeling of jealousy now arose between Sarah and Hagar, whose son,
Ishmael, was no longer to be regarded as Abraham's heir. Sarah insisted
that both Hagar and her son should be sent away. This was done,
although it was a hard trial to Abraham in Genesis 21:12).
At this point there is a blank in the patriarch's history of
perhaps twenty-five years. These years of peace and happiness were spent
at Beer-sheba. The next time we see him his faith is put to a severe
test by the command that suddenly came to him to go and offer up Isaac,
the heir of all the promises, as a sacrifice on one of the mountains of
Moriah. His faith stood the test in Hebrews 11:17-19. He proceeded in a
spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the command; and when
about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the altar, his uplifted hand
was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a ram, which was entangled in a
thicket near at hand, was seized and offered in his stead. From this
circumstance that place was called Jehovah-jireh, i.e., "The Lord will
provide." The promises made to Abraham were again confirmed (and this
was the last recorded word of God to the patriarch); and he descended
the mount with his son, and returned to his home at Beer-sheba in
where he resided for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron.
Some years after this Sarah died at Hebron, being one hundred twenty
seven years old. Abraham acquired now the needful possession of a
burying-place, the cave of Machpelah, by purchase from the owner of it,
Ephron the Hittite in Genesis 23); and there he buried Sarah. His next
care was to provide a wife for Isaac, and for this purpose he sent his
steward, Eliezer, to Haran in Acts 7:2, where his brother Nahor and his
family resided in Genesis11:31. The result was that Rebekah, the
daughter of Nahor's son Bethuel, became the wife of Isaac in Genesis
Abraham then himself took to wife Keturah, who became the mother of
six sons, whose descendants were afterwards known as the "children of
the east" Judges 6:3, and later as "Saracens." At length all his
wanderings came to an end. At the age of one hundred seventy five years,
one hundred years after he had first entered the land of Canaan, he
died, and was buried in the old family burying-place at Machpelah in
Genesis 25:7-10. The history of Abraham made a wide and deep impression
on the ancient world, and references to it are interwoven in the
religious traditions of almost all Eastern nations. He is called "the
friend of God" in James 2:23, "faithful Abraham" in Galatians 3:9), "the father of us all" in Romans 4:16.
ISAAC: The name Isaac means Laughter.
Isaac was the only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest
lived of the three patriarchs, Genesis 21:1-3. He was circumcised when
eight days old (4-7); and when he was probably two years old a great
feast was held in connection with his being weaned.
The next memorable event in his life is that connected with the
command of God given to Abraham to offer him up as a sacrifice on a
mountain in the land of Moriah, Genesis 22. When he was forty years of
age Rebekah was chosen for his wife, Genesis 24. After the death and
burial of his father he took up his residence at Beer-lahai-roi, Genesis
25:7-11, where his two sons, Esau and Jacob, were born (21-26), the
former of whom seems to have been his favourite son, Genesis 27 &
In consequence of a famine, Genesis 26:1, Isaac went to Gerar,
where he practised deception as to his relation to Rebekah, imitating
the conduct of his father in Egypt Genesis 12:12-20, and in Gerar, 20:2.
The Philistine king rebuked him for his prevarication.
After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines, he
returned to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of covenant
blessing, and where Abimelech entered into a covenant of peace with him.
The next chief event in his life was the blessing of his sons,
Genesis 27:1. He died at Mamre, "being old and full of days," 35:27-29,
one hundred and eighty years old, and was buried in the cave of
the New Testament reference is made to his having been "offered up" by
his father, Hebrews 11:17 & James 2:21, and to his blessing his
sons, Hebrews 11:20. As the child of promise, he is contrasted with
Ishmael, Romans 9:7-10; Galatians 4:28 & Hebrews 11:18.
Isaac is "at once a counterpart of his father in simple
devoutness and purity of life, and a contrast in his passive weakness of
character, which in part, at least, may have sprung from his relations
to his mother and wife. After the expulsion of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac
had no competitor, and grew up in the shade of Sarah's tent, moulded
into feminine softness by habitual submission to her strong, loving
will." His life was so quiet and uneventful that it was spent "within
the circle of a few miles; so guileless that he let Jacob overreach him
rather than disbelieve his assurance; so tender that his mother's death
was the poignant sorrow of years; so patient and gentle that peace with
his neighbours was dearer than even such a coveted possession as a well
of living water dug by his own men; so grandly obedient that he put his
life at his father's disposal; so firm in his reliance on God that his
greatest concern through life was to honour the divine promise given to
The name Jacob means one who follows on another's heels; supplanter,
Genesis 25:26; 27:36 & Hosea 12:2-4. Jacob was the second born of
the twin sons of Isaac by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi,
when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine
years old. Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition,
and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother
Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however,
showed much mean selfishness and cunning, Genesis 25:29-34.
When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother
conspired to deceive the aged patriarch, Genesis 27, with the view of
procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The birthright
secured to him who possessed it, first, superior rank in his family,
Genesis 49:3, second, a double portion of the paternal inheritance,
third, the priestly office in the family, Numbers 8:17-19, then
fourth, the promise of the Seed in which all nations of the earth were
to be blessed, Genesis 22:18.
Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing, Genesis 27,
Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at
the suggestion of Rebekah Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or
more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian
(28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban would not consent to give him
his daughter in marriage till he had served seven years; but to Jacob
these years "seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her." But
when the seven years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and
gave him his daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be
completed probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long
sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of God,
followed as a consequence of this double union."
At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to
return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried yet six
years with him, tending his flocks, 31:41. He then set out with his
family and property "to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan,"
Genesis 31. Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his
journey, and pursued after him, overtaking him in seven days. The
meeting was of a painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach
directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an
affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in
Padanaram. And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is
at an end.
Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels,
as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of
Promise, 32:1-2. He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., "the
double camp," probably his own camp and that of the angels. The vision
of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel,
when, twenty years before, the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to
Padan-aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder
whose top reached to heaven, 28:12.
He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with
a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for
the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes
himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent
present to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob."
Jacob's family were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself
remained behind, spending the night in communion with God. While thus
engaged, there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him.
In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his
name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the place where this
occured he called Peniel, "for", said he, "I have seen God face to
face, and my life is preserved," 32:25-31.
After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting,
mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of
the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of
revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as friends, and during the
remainder of their lives they maintained friendly relations. After a
brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob moved forward and pitched his tent near
Shechem, 33:18; but at length, under divine directions, he moved to
Bethel, where he made an altar unto God, 35:6-7, and where God appeared
to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from Bethel
to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving
birth to her second son Benjamin, 35:16-20, fifteen or sixteen years
after the birth of Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at
Mamre, to wait on the dying bed of his father Isaac. The complete
reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the
burial of the patriarch, 35:27-29.
Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his
beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers, 37:33. Then
follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into
Egypt to buy corn, which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph,
and the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about
seventy souls, Exodus 1:5; Deuteronomy 10L22 & Acts 7:14,
to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob, "after being strangely
tossed about on a very rough ocean, found at last a tranquil harbour,
where all the best affections of his nature were gently exercised and
largely unfolded," Genesis 48. At length the end of his checkered course
draws nigh, and he summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless
them. Among his last words he repeats the story of Rachel's death,
although forty years had passed away since that event took place, as
tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when "he had made an
end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and
yielded up the ghost," 49:33. His body was embalmed and carried with
great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside his wife Leah in
the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge. There, probably,
his embalmed body remains to this day, 50:1-13.
history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea,
12:3-12, and Malachi 1:2. In Micah 1:5, the name is a poetic synonym
for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are, besides the
mention of his name along with those of the other patriarchs, distinct
references to events of his life in Paul's epistles, Romans 9:11-13;
Hebrews 12:16 & 11:21. See references to his vision at Bethel and
his possession of land at Shechem in John 1:51 & 4:5-12. Also, to
the famine which was the occasion of his going down into Egypt in Acts
The name Judah means praise. Judah was the fourth son of Jacob by
Leah. The name originated in Leah's words of praise to the Lord on
account of his birth: "Now will I praise [Hebrews odeh] Jehovah, and she
called his name Yehudah," Genesis 29:35.
It was Judah that interposed in behalf of Joseph, so that his
life was spared, Genesis 37:26-27. He took a lead in the affairs of the
family, and "prevailed above his brethren," Genesis 43:3-10; 44:14-34;
46:28 & I Chronicles 5:2.
Soon after the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelites, Judah went to
reside at Adullam, where he married a woman of Canaan. After the death
of his wife Shuah, he returned to his father's house, and there
exercised much influence over the patriarch, taking a principal part in
the events which led to the whole family at length going down into
Egypt. We hear nothing more of him till he received his father's
blessing, Genesis 49:8-12.
The English word brethren/brother comes from the Greek word
adefoV/adephos: in this particular application, this would be a
reference to physical, blood kin relatives.
name Pharez means breach. He was the elder of the twin sons of Judah,
Genesis 38:29. From him the royal line of David he sprang, Ruth
4:18-22. "The chief of all the captains of the host" was of the
children of Perez, I Chronicles 27:3 & Matthew 1:3. Please note Luke
ZARA/ZARAH: No information available.
THARMAR: No information available.
ESROM/HEZRON: No information available.
Aram was the son of Shem, Genesis 10:22. According to Genesis 22:21,
Aram was a grandson of Nahor. In Matthew 1:3-4 & Luke 3:33, Aram is
the Greek form of Ram, the father of Amminadab, I Chronicles 2:21.
The name Aram means high, or highlands, and as the name of a
country denotes that elevated region extending from the northeast of
Palestine to the Euphrates. It corresponded generally with the Syria and
Mesopotamia of the Greeks and Romans. In Genesis 25:20 & 31:20-24;
& Deuteronomy 26:5, the word "Syrian" is properly "Aramean."
Damascus became, at length, the capital of the several smaller
kingdoms comprehended under the designation "Aram" or "Syria."
The name Amminadab means kindred of the prince. Amminadab was the
father of Nahshon, who was chief of the tribe of Judah in Numbers 1:7;
2:3; 7:12-17 & 10:14. His daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron in Exodus 6:23.
Nahshon/Naason was a sorcerer and the son of Aminadab, and prince of
the children of Judah at the time of the first numbering of the tribes
in the wilderness in Exodus 6:23.
His sister Elisheba was the wife of Aaron. He died in the wilderness in
Number 26:64-65. His name occurs in the Greek form Naasson in the
genealogy of Christ.
SALMON: Salmon was the son of Nashon in Ruth 4:20. It is possible he is the same as Salma in I Chronicles 2:51.
Boaz was the husband of Ruth, a wealthy Bethlehemite. By the "levirate
law" the duty devolved on him of marrying Ruth the Moabitess in Ruth
4:1-13. He was a kinsman of Mahlon, her first husband.
RACHAB: Rachab is the New Testament Greek version of the Old Testament name Rahab.
The name Obed means one who worships God by serving God. Obed was a
son of Boaz and Ruth in Ruth 4:21, 22. Obed was also the grandfather of
The name Jesse can mean firm or a gift. He was a son of Obed, the son
of Boaz and Ruth in Ruth 4:17-22. He was the father of eight sons, the
youngest of whom was David in I Samuel17:12. The phrase "stem of Jesse"
is used for the family of David in Isaiah11:1, and "root of Jesse" for
the Messiah in Isaiah 11:10 & Revelation 5:5.
Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem as
per I Samuel17:17 20; Psalms 78:71. The last reference to him is of
David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab in I Samuel
The name Jesse can mean firm or a gift. He was a son of Obed, the son
of Boaz and Ruth in Ruth 4:17-22. He was the father of eight sons, the
youngest of whom was David in I Samuel17:12. The phrase "stem of Jesse"
is used for the family of David in Isaiah11:1, and "root of Jesse" for
the Messiah in Isaiah 11:10 & Revelation 5:5.
Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem as
per I Samuel17:17 20; Psalms 78:71. The last reference to him is of
David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab in I Samuel
The name Solomon means peaceful. Solomon was David's second son by
Bathsheba. Solomon was their the first after their legal marriage in II
Samuel12. He was probably born about B.C. 1035 in I Chronicles 22:5
& 29:1. He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood,
probably about sixteen/eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his
education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah which means "beloved of the
Lord" in II Samuel12:24-25.
He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple." His father
chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons:
"Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me." His history is recorded
in I Kings 1-11 and II Chronicles 1-9. His elevation to the throne took
place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan
and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah in I Kings
During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its
highest splendor. This period has well been called the "Augustan age"
of the Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far
the brighter and more prosperous. The latter half was clouded by the
idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages in
I Kings 11:1-8; 14:21-31.
Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son in I
Kings 2:1-9 & I Chronicles 22:7-28. As soon as he had settled
himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive
empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the
daughter of Pharaoh in I Kings 3:1, of whom, however, nothing further is
recorded. He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external
grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered
into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly
assisted him in his numerous undertakings.
For some years before his death David was engaged in the active
work of collecting materials in I Chronicles 29:6-9 & II Chronicles
2:3-7, for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the
ark of the covenant. He was not permitted to build the house of God in I
Chronicles 22:8. That honor was reserved to his son Solomon.
After the completion of the temple, Solomon engaged in the erection
of many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and in other parts
of his kingdom. For the long space of thirteen years he was engaged in
the erection of a royal palace on Ophel in I Kings 7:1-12. It was 100
cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high. Its lofty roof was supported by
forty-five cedar pillars, so that the hall was like a forest of cedar
wood, and hence probably it received the name of "The House of the
Forest of Lebanon." In front of this "house" was another building, which
was called the Porch of Pillars, and in front of this again was the
"Hall of Judgment," or Throne-room in I Kings 7:7; 10:18-20 & II
Chronicles 9:17-19), "the King's Gate," where he administered justice
and gave audience to his people. This palace was a building of great
magnificence and beauty. A portion of it was set apart as the residence
of the queen consort, the daughter of Pharaoh. From the palace there was
a private staircase of red and scented sandal wood which led up to the
temple. Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing
a plentiful supply of water for the city in Ecclesiastes 2:4-6. He then
built Millo for the defence of the city, completing a line of ramparts
around it in I Kings 9:15-24 & 11:27.
He erected also many other fortifications for the defence of his
kingdom at various points where it was exposed to the assault of enemies
in I Kings 9:15-19 & II Chronicles 8:2-6. Among his great
undertakings must also be mentioned the building of Tadmor in the
wilderness as a commercial depot, as well as a military outpost.
During his reign, Palestine enjoyed great commercial prosperity.
Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia,
and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of Africa, by which
Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the produce of all
nations in I Kings 9:26-28; 10:11-12; II Chronicles 8:17-18 & 9:21.
This was the "golden age" of Israel. The royal magnificence and
splendor of Solomon's court were unrivaled. He had seven hundred wives
and three hundred concubines, an evidence at once of his pride, his
wealth, and his sensuality. The maintenance of his household involved
immense expenditure. The provision required for one day was "thirty
measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen,
and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts,
and roebucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl" in I Kings 4:22-23.
Solomon's reign was not only a period of great material prosperity,
but was equally remarkable for its intellectual activity. He was the
leader of his people also in this uprising amongst them of new
intellectual life. "He spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were
a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is
in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he
spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of
fishes" in I Kings 4:32-33. His fame was spread abroad through all
lands, and men came from far and near "to hear the wisdom of Solomon."
Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south" in
Matthew12:42, the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix. "Deep,
indeed, must have been her yearning, and great his fame, which induced a
secluded Arabian queen to break through the immemorial custom of her
dreamy land, and to put forth the energy required for braving the
burdens and perils of so long a journey across a wilderness. Yet this
she undertook, and carried it out with safety." in I Kings 10:1-13 &
II Chronicles 9:1-12.
She was filled with amazement by all she saw and heard: "there was
no more spirit in her." After an interchange of presents she returned to
her native land. But that golden age of Jewish history passed away. The
bright day of Solomon's glory ended in clouds and darkness. His decline
and fall from his high estate is a sad record. Chief among the causes
of his decline were his polygamy and his great wealth. "As he grew older
he spent more of his time among his favorites. The idle king living
among these one thousand women, with all their mischievous attendants,
filled the palaces and pleasure houses which he had built in I Kings
11:3, learned first to tolerate and then to imitate their heathenish
ways. He did not, indeed, cease to believe in the God of Israel with his
mind. He did not cease to offer the usual sacrifices in the temple at
the great feasts. But his heart was not right with God; his worship
became merely formal; his soul, left empty by the dying out of true
religious fervour, sought to be filled with any religious excitement
which offered itself. Now for the first time a worship was publicly set
up amongst the people of the Lord which was not simply irregular or
forbidden, like that of Gideon in Judges 8:27, or the Danites in
Judges18:30-31. But was downright idolatrous." in I Kings 11:7& II
This brought upon him the divine displeasure. His enemies prevailed
against him in I Kings 11:14-40. And one judgment after another fell
upon the land. And now the end of all came, and he died, after a reign
of forty years, and was buried in the city of David, and "with him was
buried the short-lived glory and unity of Israel." "He leaves behind him
but one weak and worthless son, to dismember his kingdom and disgrace
his name." "The kingdom of Solomon," says Rawlinson, "is one of the most
striking facts in the Biblical history.
A petty nation, which for hundreds of years has with difficulty
maintained a separate existence in the midst of warlike tribes, each of
which has in turn exercised dominion over it and oppressed it, is
suddenly raised by the genius of a soldier-monarch to glory and
greatness. An empire is established which extends from the Euphrates to
the borders of Egypt, a distance of four hundred and fifty miles. And
this empire, rapidly constructed, enters almost immediately on a period
of peace which lasts for half a century. Wealth, grandeur, architectural
magnificence, artistic excellence, commercial enterprise, a position of
dignity among the great nations of the earth, are enjoyed during this
space, at the end of which there is a sudden collapse. The ruling nation
is split in twain, the subject-races fall off, the pre-eminence lately
gained being wholly lost, the scene of struggle, strife, oppression,
recovery, inglorious submission, and desperate effort, re-commences."
One of King David's top military leaders. One of King David's
strongest and mightiest warriors. One of King David's dearest and
closest friends. The husband to the wife which David stole and
impregnated. The one whom King David had killed in battle to cover up
the adulterous affair and impregnation.
The name Rehoboam means he enlarges the people. He was the successor
of Solomon on the throne, and apparently his only son. He was the son of
Naamah "the Ammonitess," some well-known Ammonitish princess in I Kings
14:21 & II Chronicles12:13.
He was forty-one years old when he ascended the throne, and he reigned seventeen years from B.C. 975-958.
Although he was acknowledged at once as the rightful heir to the
throne, yet there was a strongly felt desire to modify the character of
the government. The burden of taxation to which they had been subjected
during Solomon's reign was very oppressive, and therefore the people
assembled at Shechem and demanded from the king an alleviation of their
burdens. He went to meet them at Shechem, and heard their demands for
relief in I Kings 12:4. After three days, having consulted with a
younger generation of courtiers that had grown up around him, instead of
following the advice of elders, he answered the people haughtily in
verses 6-15. "The king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was
from the Lord" This brought matters speedily to a crisis. The terrible
cry was heard "What portion have we in David? Neither have we
inheritance in the son of Jesse: To your tents, O Israel: Now see to
thine own house, David" Please note here I Kings 12:16. And now at once the kingdom was rent in twain.
Rehoboam was appalled, and tried concessions, but it was too late.
The tribe of Judah, Rehoboam's own tribe, alone remained faithful to
him. Benjamin was reckoned along with Judah and these two tribes formed
the southern kingdom, with Jerusalem as its capital; while the northern
ten tribes formed themselves into a separate kingdom, choosing Jeroboam
as their king. Rehoboam tried to win back the revolted ten tribes by
making war against them, but he was prevented by the prophet Shemaiah II
Chronicles11:1-4) from fulfilling his purpose.
In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak, one of the kings of
Egypt of the Assyrian dynasty, stirred up, no doubt, by Jeroboam his
son-in-law, made war against him. Jerusalem submitted to the invader,
who plundered the temple and virtually reduced the kingdom to the
position of a vassal of Egypt in I Kings 14:25-26 & II
Chronicles12:5-9. A remarkable memorial of this invasion has been
discovered at Karnac, in Upper Egypt, in certain sculptures on the walls
of a small temple there. These sculptures represent the king, Shishak,
holding in his hand a train of prisoners and other figures, with the
names of the captured towns of Judah, the towns which Rehoboam had
fortified in II Chronicles11:5-12. The kingdom of Judah, under
Rehoboam, sank more and more in moral and spiritual decay. "There was
war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days." At length, in the
fifty-eighth year of his age, Rehoboam "slept with his fathers, and was
buried with his fathers in the city of David" in I Kings 14:31. He was succeeded by his son Abijah.
Abijah was the son of Rehoboam, whom he succeeded on the throne of
Judah in I Chronicles 3:10. He is also called Abijam in I Kings 14:31
He began his three years' reign in II Chronicles12:16 &13:1-2,
with a strenuous but unsuccessful effort to bring back the ten tribes to
His address to "Jeroboam and all Israel," before encountering them
in battle, is worthy of being specially noticed in II
Chronicles13:5-12. It was a very bloody battle, no fewer than half a
million of the army of Israel having perished on the field.
He is described as having walked "in all the sins of his father" in
I Kings 15:3 & II Chronicles11:20-22. It is said in I Kings 15:2,
that "his mother's name was Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom;" but in
II Chronicles13:2 we read, "his mother's name was Michaiah, the
daughter of Uriel of Gibeah."
The explanation is that Maachah is just a variation of the name
Michaiah, and that Abishalom is probably the same as Absalom, the son of
David. It is probable that "Uriel of Gibeah" married Tamar, the
daughter of Absalom in II Samuel14:27, and by her had Maachah. The word
"daughter" in I Kings 15:2 will thus, as it frequently elsewhere does,
Asa was the son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam. He was the third
king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of God and
in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying immoralities, out of the
land in I Kings 15:8-14.
The Lord gave him and his land rest and prosperity. It is recorded
of him, however, that in his old age, when afflicted, he "sought not to
the Lord, but to the physicians." He died in the forty-first year of
his reign, greatly honoured by his people in II Chronicles16:1-13, and
was succeeded by his son Jehoshaphat.
Jehoshaphat was the son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. After
fortifying his kingdom against Israel in II Chronicles17:1-2, he set
himself to cleanse the land of idolatry in I Kings 22:43.
In the third year of his reign he sent out priests and Levites over the
land to instruct the people in the law in II Chronicles17:7-9. He
enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the blessing of God
resting on the people "in their basket and their store." The great
mistake of his reign was his entering into an alliance with Ahab, the
king of Israel, which involved him in much disgrace and brought disaster
on his kingdom in I Kings 22:1-33.
Escaping from the bloody battle of Ramoth-gilead, the prophet Jehu
in II Chronicles 19:1-3, reproached him for the course he had been
pursuing, whereupon he entered with rigor on his former course of
opposition to all idolatry, and of deepening interest in the worship of
God and in the righteous government of the people in II Chronicles
Again he entered into an alliance with Ahaziah, the king of Israel,
for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir. But the
fleet that was then equipped at Ezion-gaber was speedily wrecked. A new
fleet was fitted out without the co-operation of the king of Israel, and
although it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted in II
Chronicles 20:35-37 & I Kings 22:48-49.
He subsequently joined Jehoram, king of Israel, in a war against
the Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful.
The Moabites were subdued; but the dreadful act of Mesha in offering
his own son a sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth in the sight of
the armies of Israel filled him with horror and he withdrew and returned
to his own land in II Kings 3:4-27.
The last most notable event of his reign was that recorded in II
Chronicles 20. The Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy with
the surrounding nations and came against Jehoshaphat. The allied forces
were encamped at Engedi. The king and his people were filled with alarm
and betook themselves to God in prayer. The king prayed in the court of
the temple, "O our God, wilt thou not judge them? for we have no might
against this great company that cometh against us." Amid the silence
that followed, the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard announcing
that on the morrow all this great host would be overthrown. So it was,
for they argued among themselves and slew one another, leaving to the
people of Judah only to gather the rich spoils of the slain. This was
recognized as a great deliverance wrought for them by God in B.C. 890.
Soon after this Jehoshaphat died, after a reign of twenty-five
years being sixty years of age. He was succeeded by his son Jehoram in I
He had this testimony, that "he sought the Lord with all his heart" in
II Chronicles 22:9. The kingdom of Judah was never more prosperous than
under his reign.
Joram, or in some spellings Jehoram, was the son/successor of
Jehoshaphat. Eventually, he ascended to the throne of Judah in II Kings
Uzziah is a name which means the Lord is my strength. He became king of
Judah in II Kings 14:21 & II Chronicles 26:1.
His long reign of about fifty-two years was "the most prosperous
excepting that of Jehosaphat since the time of Solomon." He was a
vigorous and able ruler and "his name spread abroad, even to the
entering in of Egypt"in II Chronicles 26:8-14.
In the earlier part of his reign, under the influence of Zechariah,
he was faithful to Jehovah, and "did that which was right in the sight
of the Lord" in II Kings 15:3 & II Chronicles 26:4-5. However,
toward the close of his long life "his heart was lifted up to his
destruction," and he wantonly invaded the priest's office in II
Chronicles 26:16 by entering the sanctuary proceeded to offer incense on
the golden altar.
Azariah the high priest saw the tendency of such a daring act on
the part of the king, and with a band of eighty priests he withstood him
in II Chronilces 26:17, saying, "It appertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah,
to burn incense." Uzziah was suddenly struck with leprosy while in the
act of offering incense and he was driven from the temple and compelled
to reside in "a several house" to the day of his death II Kings 15:5-27
& II Chronicles 26:3.
He was buried in a separate grave "in the field of the burial which
belonged to the kings" in II Kings 15:7 & II Chronicles 26:2. "That
lonely grave in the royal necropolis would eloquently testify to coming
generations that all earthly monarchy must bow before the inviolable
order of the divine will, and that no interference could be tolerated
with that unfolding of the purposes of God, which, in the fulness of
time, would reveal the Christ, the true High Priest and King for
He was the son and successor of Uzziah on the throne of Judah. As
during his last years, Uzziah was excluded from public life on account
of his leprosy. His son, then twenty-five years of age, administered
for seven years the affairs of the kingdom in his father's stead in II
Chronicles 26:21-23 & 27:1. After his father's death he became sole
monarch, and reigned for sixteen years from B.C. 759-743. He ruled in
the fear of God, and his reign was prosperous. He was contemporary with
the prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, by whose ministrations he
profited. He was buried in the sepulcher of the kings and was greatly
lamented by the people in II Kings 15:38 & II Chronicles 27:7-9.
Ahaz was the son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah in II Kings 16;
Isaiah 7-9 & II Chronicles 28. He gave himself up to a life of
wickedness and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances and warnings
of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin, king of
Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem, to
Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, to the great injury of his kingdom
and his own humiliating subjection to the Assyrians in II Kings 16:7-9
& 15:29. He also introduced among his people many heathen and idolatrous customs in II Kings 23:12; Isaiah 8:19
& 38:8; He died at the age of thirty-five years, after reigning
sixteen years B.C. 740-724. He was succeeded by his son Hezekiah.
Because of his wickedness he was "not brought into the sepulcher of the
The name Hezekiah means whom Jehovah has strengthened. He was the son
of Ahaz in II Kings 18:1 & II Chronicles 29:1, whom he succeeded on
the throne of the kingdom of Judah. He reigned twenty-nine years during
the dates of B.C. 726-697.
The history of this king is contained in II Kings 18:20;
II Chronicles 29-32 & Isaiah. 36-39. He is spoken of as a great
and good king. In public life he followed the example of his
great-grandfather Uzziah. He set himself to abolish idolatry from his
kingdom, and among other things, which he did to this end, he destroyed
the "brazen serpent," which had been removed to Jerusalem, and had
become an object of idolatrous worship in Numbers 21:9. A great
reformation was wrought in the kingdom of Judah in his day in II Kings
18:4 & II Chronicles 29:3-36. On the death of Sargon and the
accession of his son Sennacherib to the throne of Assyria, Hezekiah
refused to pay the tribute which his father had paid, and "rebelled
against the king of Assyria, and served him not," but entered into a
league with Egypt in Isaiah 30; 31 & 36:6-9. This led to the
invasion of Judah by Sennacherib in II Kings 18:13-16, who took forty
cities, and besieged Jerusalem with mounds. Hezekiah yielded to the
demands of the Assyrian king, and agreed to pay him three hundred
talents of silver and thirty of gold. But Sennacherib dealt
treacherously with Hezekiah in Isaiah 33:1. and a second time within
two years invaded his kingdom in II Kings 18:17;
II Chronicles 32:9 & Isaiah 36. This invasion issued in the
destruction of Sennacherib's army. Hezekiah prayed to God, and "that
night the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the
Assyrians 185,000 men." Sennacherib fled with the shattered remnant of
his forces to Nineveh, where, seventeen years after, he was assassinated
by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer in II Kings 19:37.
The name Manasseh means one who makes to forget. "God hath made me
forget" in Genesis 41:51. He was the elder of the two sons of Joseph.
He and his brother Ephraim were afterwards adopted by Jacob as his own
sons in Genesis 48:1. There is an account of his marriage to a Syrian
in I Chronicles7:14; and the only thing afterwards recorded of him is,
that his grandchildren were "brought up upon Joseph's knees" in Genesis
The tribe of Manasseh was associated with that of Ephraim and
Benjamin during the wanderings in the wilderness. They encamped on the
west side of the tabernacle. According to the census taken at Sinai,
this tribe then numbered 32,200 in Numbers 1:10-35 & 2:20-21. Forty
years afterwards its numbers had increased to 52,700 in Numbers
26:34-37, and it was at this time the most distinguished of all the
tribes. The half of this tribe, along with Reuben and Gad, had their
territory assigned them by Moses on the east of the Jordan in
Joshua13:7-14; but it was left for Joshua to define the limits of each
tribe. This territory on the east of Jordan was more valuable and of
larger extent than all that was allotted to the nine and a half tribes
in the land of Palestine. It is sometimes called "the land of Gilead,"
and is also spoken of as "on the other side of Jordan." The portion
given to the half tribe of Manasseh was the largest on the east of
Jordan. It embraced the whole of Bashan. It was bounded on the south by
Mahanaim, and extended north to the foot of Lebanon. Argob, with its
sixty cities, that "ocean of basaltic rocks and boulders tossed about in
the wildest confusion," lay in the midst of this territory. The whole
"land of Gilead" having been conquered, the two and a half tribes left
their wives and families in the fortified cities there, and accompanied
the other tribes across the Jordan, and took part with them in the wars
of conquest. The allotment of the land having been completed, Joshua
dismissed the two and a half tribes, commending them for their heroic
service in Joshua 22:1-34. Thus, dismissed, they returned over Jordan
to their own inheritance.
On the west of Jordan the other half of the tribe of Manasseh was
associated with Ephraim, and they had their portion in the very center
of Palestine, an area of about thirteen hundred square miles, the most
valuable part of the whole country, abounding in springs of water.
Manasseh's portion was immediately to the north of that of Ephraim in
Joshua16. Thus, the western Manasseh defended the passes of Esdraelon as
the eastern kept the passes of the Hauran.
The only son and successor of Hezekiah on the throne of Judah. He
was twelve years old when he began to reign in II Kings 21:1, and he
reigned fifty-five years during the dates of B.C. 698-643. Though he
reigned so long, yet comparatively little is known of this king. His
reign was a continuation of that of Ahaz, both in religion and national
polity. He early fell under the influence of the heathen court circle,
and his reign was characterized by a sad relapse into idolatry with all
its vices, showing that the reformation under his father had been to a
large extent only superficial in Isaiah 7:10
& II Kings 21:10-15. A systematic and persistent attempt was made,
and all too successfully, to banish the worship of Jehovah out of the
land. Amid this wide-spread idolatry there were not wanting, however,
faithful prophets such as Isaiah and Micah, who lifted up their voice
in reproof and in warning. But their fidelity only aroused bitter
hatred, and a period of cruel persecution against all the friends of the
old religion began. "The days of Alva in Holland, of Charles IX. in
France, or of the Covenanters under Charles II. in Scotland, were
anticipated in the Jewish capital. The streets were red with blood."
There is an old Jewish tradition that Isaiah was put to death at this
time in II Kings 21:16; 24:3-4 & Jeremiah 2:30,
having been sawn asunder in the trunk of a tree. Psalms 49, 73, 77, 140
& 141 seem to express the feelings of the pious amid the fiery
trials of this great persecution.
Manasseh has been called the "Nero of Palestine." Esarhaddon,
Sennacherib's successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence in
Babylon for thirteen years, and who was the only Assyrian monarch who
ever reigned in Babylon, took Manasseh prisoner during the dates of
B.C. 681 to Babylon. Such captive kings were usually treated with great
cruelty. They were brought before the conqueror with a hook or ring
passed through their lips or their jaws, having a cord attached to it,
by which they were led. This is referred to in II Chronicles 33:11.
The severity of Manasseh's imprisonment brought him to repentance.
God heard his cry, and he was restored to his kingdom in II Chronicles
33:11-13. He abandoned his idolatrous ways, and enjoined the people to
worship Jehovah; but there was no thorough reformation. After a
lengthened reign extending through fifty-five years, the longest in the
history of Judah, he died, and was buried in the garden of Uzza, the
"garden of his own house" in II Kings 21:17-18 & II Chronicles
33:20, and not in the city of David, among his ancestors. He was
succeeded by his son Amon. In Judges 18:30,
the correct reading is "Moses," and not "Manasseh." The name "Manasseh"
is supposed to have been introduced by some transcriber to avoid the
scandal of naming the grandson of Moses the great lawgiver as the
founder of an idolatrous religion.
The name Amon means builder. He was the governor of Samaria in the
time of Ahab and the prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody in I
Kings 22:26 & II Chronicles 18:25.
Also, Amon was the son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah.
He restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had cast
down. Zephaniah 1:4 & 3:4-11, refers to the moral depravity
prevailing in this king's reign. He was assassinated in II Kings
21:18-26 & II Chronicles 33:20-25 by his own servants, who conspired
The name Josiah means healed by Jehovah, or Jehovah will support. He
was the son of Amon, and his successor on the throne of Judah in II
Kings 22:1 & II Chronicles 34:1. His history is contained in II
Kings 22-23. He stands foremost among all the kings of the line of David
for unswerving loyalty to Jehovah. He "did that which was right in the
sight of the Lord, and walked in all the way of David his father." He
ascended the throne at the early age of eight years and it appears that
not till eight years afterwards did he begin "to seek after the God of
David his father." At that age he devoted himself to God. He
distinguished himself by beginning a war of extermination against the
prevailing idolatry, which had practically been the state religion for
some seventy years in II Chronicles 34:3; Jeremiah 25:3-29.
In the eighteenth year of his reign he proceeded to repair and
beautify the temple which due to time and violence had become sorely
dilapidated in II Kings 22:3- 6; 23:23
& II Chronicles34:11. While this work was being carried on,
Hilkiah, the high priest, discovered a roll, which was probably the
original copy of the law, the entire Pentateuch, written by Moses. When
this book was read to him, the king was alarmed by the things it
contained, and sent for Huldah, the "prophetess," for her counsel. She
spoke to him words of encouragement, telling him that he would be
gathered to his fathers in peace before the threatened days of judgment
came. Josiah immediately gathered the people together, and engaged them
in a renewal of their ancient national covenant with God. The Passover
was then celebrated, as in the days of his great predecessor, Hezekiah,
with unusual magnificence. Nevertheless, "the Lord turned not from the
fierceness of his great wrath wherewith his anger was kindled against
Judah" in II Kings 22:3-20; 23:21-27 & II Chronicles 35:1-19.
During the progress of this great religious revolution Jeremiah
helped it on by his earnest exhortations. Soon after this, Pharaoh-Necho
II, king of Egypt, in an expedition against the king of Assyria, with
the view of gaining possession of Carchemish, sought a passage through
the territory of Judah for his army. This Josiah refused to permit. He
had probably entered into some new alliance with the king of Assyria,
and faithful to his word he sought to oppose the progress of Necho. The
army of Judah went out and encountered that of Egypt at Megiddo, on the
verge of the plain of Esdraelon. Josiah went into the field in disguise,
and was fatally wounded by a random arrow. His attendants conveyed him
toward Jerusalem, but had only reached Hadadrimmon, a few miles south of
Megiddo, when he died in II Kings 23:28-30 &vII Chronicles35:20-27,
after a reign of thirty-one years. He was buried with the greatest
honors in fulfilment of Huldah's prophecy in II Kings 22:20 & Jeremiah 34:5.
composed a funeral elegy on this the best of the kings of Israel in
Lamentations 4:20 & II Chronicles 35:25. The outburst of national
grief on account of his death became proverbial Zechariah 12:11 &
Jeconiah, preparation, or stability, of the Lord. Jeconiah is called
Coniah in Jeremiah 22:24-30. There a curse is pronounced upon him.
There it is predicted that none of his seed should proper sitting upon
David's throne. Had our Lord been the natural son of Joseph, who was
descended from Jeconiah/Coniah, He could never reign in power and
righteousness because of the curse. But Christ came through Mary's
line, not Joseph's. As the adopted son of Joseph, the curse upon
Coniah's seed did not affect Him.
name(s) Shealtiel/Salathiel, means asked for of God, father of
Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2-8 & Nehemiah12:1. He was the son of Jeconiah
in I Chronicles 3:17 & Matthew1:12. He is also called the son of Neri in Luke 3:27.
The probable explanation of the apparent discrepancy is that he was the
son of Neri, the descendant of Nathan, and thus heir to the throne of
David on the death of Jeconiah in Jeremiah 22:30.
The name Zerubbabel means the seed of Babylon. Zerubbabel was the son
of Salathiel or Shealtiel He is also known by the Persian name of
Sheshbazzar in Ezra 1:8, 11. In the first year of Cyrus, king of
Persia, he led the first band of Jews, numbering 42,360 in Ezra 2:64.
Exclusive of a large number of servants who returned from captivity at
the close of the seventy years. In the second year after the Return, he
erected an altar and laid the foundation of the temple on the ruins of
that which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel chapter 1.
All through the work he occupied a prominent place, inasmuch as he was a
descendant of the royal line of David.
ABIUD: the name Abiud, means father of praise.
ELIAKIM: The name Eliakim means resurrection of God
AZOR: The name Azor can mean either a helper or a court.
SADOC: No particular information available.
ACHIM: The name Achim can mean preparing, revenging or confirming.
ELIUD: The name Eliud means God is my praise.
ELEAZAR: The name Eleazar means God has helped.
MATTHAN/MATTAN: The son of Eleazar, and father of Jacob who was the father of Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary.
JACOB: No particular information on this Jacob available.
The foster-father of our Lord in Matthew 1:16 & Luke 3:23. He
lived at Nazareth in Galilee as per Luke 2:4. He is called a "just man."
He was by trade a carpenter Matthew 13:55.
He is last mentioned in connection with the journey to Jerusalem, when
Jesus was twelve years old. It is probable that he died before Jesus
entered on his public ministry. This is concluded from the fact that
Mary only was present at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee. His name
does not appear in connection with the scenes of the crucifixion along
with that of Mary as per John 19:25.
In Matthew chapter 1, the English word begat appears in excess of
thirty five times. The English word begat comes from the Greek word
gennao/gennaw. It means to be the biological father or the male
counterpart in the act of procreating.
Please notice in verse 17, three sets of fourteen generations. The
first set of fourteen would be Abraham to King David. The second set
of fourteen would be Kind David to Josiah. And the third and last set
of fourteen generations would be Josiah to Joseph the foster father of
Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary
was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with
child of the Holy Ghost.
In the description of the divine nativity, the wording is very
careful in order to keep all characters involved in their proper places
English word birth comes from the Greek word gennesis/gennhsiV. This
has to do with a live, physical, human birth as we would understand it
in the natural vernacular.
The English word espoused comes from the Greek word mnesteuo/mnhsteuw.
This particular Greek word answers an age old question. Was Joseph and
Mary married at this time or just engaged. The use of this Greek word
indicates they were only engaged and that intimate martial union has not
taken place at this time.
The English word before comes from the Greek word prin/ prin.
Quite simply, prior to the event in question. In this case, the span
of time between the betrothal ceremony at the temple, and the actual
consummation of the marriage.
The English phrase come together comes from the Greek word
sunercomai/sunerchomai. It means the act of coming together for
conjugal purposes. As to consummate a marriage. Therefore, it would
seem that the time of the marriage and consummation was getting close
and Joseph needed to know what was going on.
The English word found comes from the Greek word euriskw/heurisko.
In this case, she was found to be already pregnant before the time of
marriage and consummation. However, Holy Spirit was the father of her
unborn baby not a normal, natural, mortal man.
gives us even more information about the conception of Christ. In this
verse, Holy Spirit came upon her, and the very power of the very God
overshadowed her. It was due to the power of God Himself that Mary
conceived. And according to Luke 1:35, the conceived child which she was carrying was Holy in the sight of God.
Therefore, in Matthew 1:18,
after the betrothal ceremony, and, before the act of the wedding and
consummation, it was discovered that Mary was pregnant. However, the
Bible is very careful to make sure the reader understands that it is
Holy Spirit who is the father of Jesus not Joseph or a natural mortal
This is in direct fulfillment of the prophecy found in Isaiah 7:14...Therefore
the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall
conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
As per the wording of Matthew 1:18,
the actual marriage of Joseph and Mary would have had to be complete.
For the Greek wording would indicate that Joseph was approaching Mary
for the purpose of sexual intercourse.
In the Greek New Testament, the virgin birth is not presented on the level of the mythical, but on the level of historical fact.
The virgin birth proves GOD the FATHER can create anything.
As per the SCRIPTURES, Joseph could have either divorced Mary, or even had her executed as per Deuteronomy 22:13-21.
the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory,
the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and
Notice the smooth transition from the genealogy of JESUS to the actual historical account of His birth.
as HOLY SPIRIT was instrumental in the creation in Genesis 1, HOLY
SPIRIT again is instrumental in the creation of the body which will
house the Messiah.
Between engagement and marriage can be a period of just over a
year. However, the legal position of the fiancee' remains constant.
And engagement in this society was as binding as the actual marriage
itself. But, consummatio matrimonii at this particular time had not
Here in Matthew 1:18,
the Greek word sunercomai/sunerchomai has to do with that of
marital intimacy. Meaning, that Mary was still a virgin when her
wedding time came about.
In the Hebrew society, an engagement was as enforceable as the
actual marriage itself. In the event that one/both of the parties
wanted out of this marriage, a bill of divorcement would be required.
Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a
publick example, was minded to put her away privily.
In Matthew 1:19, the English word husband comes from the Greek word aner/anhr.
It means that according to the local religious/governmental practices
of that region, the man and the woman in question are, in fact by the
letter of the law, legally married. As is the wording of the Greek New
Testament. Even though Joseph and Mary were only betrothed, in the eyes
of the government and the temple they were for all practical intents
and purposes, in fact married. Then Joseph found out about Jesus just
as he and Mary were about to have the wedding and consummate the
marriage. Please notice, that as per Jewish laws, Joseph is already
being referred to as aner/anhr.
In verse 19, Joseph decided on a very quiet divorce as per the Law
of God in Deuteronomy 24:1. Mind you, Joseph could have opted for a
very public/messy divorce, or he could have even had Mary judicially
executed. Instead, he chooses a quiet/discreet divorce.In verse 20, the
Bible uses the word thought. In my opinion, and I stress my opinion,
it was while Joseph agonized on these things. At this time he was
feeling a very deep sickening hurt and agony. He was feeling betrayal,
love and anger all at the same time. However, he had decided that in
the long run, a quite, discreet little divorce would probably be the
best interest to all parties concerned.
Please note here Numbers 5:11-22.
Deuteronomy 24:1-4...When a man
hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no
favour in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleanness in her: then
let him write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her hand, and
send her out of his house. And when she is departed out of his house,
she may go and be another man's wife. And if the latter husband hate
her, and write her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and
sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, which took
her to be his wife; Her former husband, which sent her away, may not
take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is
abomination before the LORD: and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance.
But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord
appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear
not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her
is of the Holy Ghost.
While Joseph was going through the process of getting Mary out of
his life, one night while sleeping, an angel of the Lord appears to
Joseph and tells him not to fear to take Mary as his wife. For the
child she is carrying has been conceived by Holy Spirit.
are those who say that the Bible never does say that Joseph is of the
house of David. Look at Matthew 1:20. It does say that Joseph is of
the house of David.
are times, when in order for GOD to get
us into the position which He would need for us to be in, He will give
us an instruction which, on the surface, appears ludicrous. For Joseph,
it would appear that he is aiding and abating an unfaithful
adulteress. However, when GOD steps in, suddenly Joseph's fears turns
to calm. And he now knows that he has stepped into the will and plan of
It is quite possible that Matthew 1:20 is an epiphany. An epiphany is a pre-Bethlehem appearance of Jesus Christ.
Genesis 18 is an epiphany of Jesus Christ. He is the one who came
to Sarah to tell her she would be having a baby in the next year and to
announce to Abraham the destruction of Sodom.
When you compare Exodus 3:14
with John 18:5-8, Moses, without a doubt, has an epiphany of Jesus
Christ at the burning bush event. Then Moses has yet another epiphany of
Jesus Christ in Exodus 33:18-23.
You see another epiphany of Jesus in the form of the Shekinah Glory
of God in Exodus 40:33-38; I Kings 8:10-11; II Chronicles 5:13-14; II
Chronicles 7:1-3 & Ezekiel 1-3. Compare these verse with Mark
9:2-4: Luke 9:29-31 & Revelation 1:12-16.
I JOHN 3:1-3... Behold, what
manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be
called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it
knew him not. Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet
appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we
shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. And every man that
hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.
In this verse Jesus announces three things to Joseph: Joseph is the Son of David Not to be afraid to take unto himself Mary to be his wife The baby she is carrying was conceived by Holy Spirit
 And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.
The fact that Jesus came to the earth, this time, to bring mankind
into right standing with God, is what finally caused Him to be rejected
by Israel in Luke 21:24.
Israel did not want spiritual help. They wanted political and
military help in that they wanted to be free from Rome. And since that
was not the reason which Jesus came to the earth, He was rejected by the
Nation of Israel in John 1:11-13.
JESUS: The name Jesus can also mean Joshua, the son of Nun as per Acts 7:45 & Hebrews 4:8. Note also Colossians 4:11.
the proper as Christ, is the official, name of our Lord. To
distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of
Nazareth" as in John 18:7, and "Jesus the son of Joseph" as in John 6:42.
is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally
Hoshea in Numbers 13: & 16. But changed by Moses into Jehoshua in
Numbers 13:16 & In Chronicles 7:27.
After the Exile, it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form
Jesus. It was given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to
save in Matthew 1:21.
The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great
periods. First, that of his private life, till he was about thirty
years of age. Then secondly, that of his public life, which lasted
about three years.
In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign
of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a
carpenter in Matthew 1:1; Luke 3:23 & John 7:42.
His birth was announced to the shepherds in Luke 2:8-20. Wise men from
the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King of the Jews,"
bringing gifts with them in Matthew 2:1-12. Herod's cruel jealousy led
to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, where they
tarried till the death of this king in Matthew 2:13-23. After this,
they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee as per Matthews 2:23; Luke 4:16 & John 1:46..
At the age of twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with
his parents. There, in the temple, "in the midst of the doctors," all
that heard him were "astonished at his understanding and answers" as per
Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this,
that he returned to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and
in favor with God and man" in Luke 2:52.
He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty
years of age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three
years. "Each of these years had peculiar features of its own.
first year may be called the year of obscurity, both because the records
of it which we possess are very scanty, and because he seems during it
to have been only slowly emerging into public notice. It was spent for
the most part in Judea.
The second year was the year of public favor, during which the
country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was incessant,
and his frame rang through the length and breadth of the land. It was
almost wholly passed in Galilee.
The third was the year of opposition, when the public favor
ebbed away. His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more
pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred. The first six
months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and the last six in
other parts of the land."
The only reliable sources of information
regarding the life of Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in
historical detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different
The name Jesus, itself, means Savior; the name of the Son of
God as announced by the angel to his parents; the personal name of Our
Lord, in distinction from Christ, his official appellation.
SIN: Sin is any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God, Romans 4:15
& I John 3:4, in the inward state and habit of the soul, as well
as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or
commission, Romans 6:12-17 & 7:5-25. It is "not a mere violation of
the law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an
offence against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates
his law with penalties. The soul that sins is always conscious that his
sin is, first, intrinsically vile and polluting and that second, that
it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the righteous wrath of
God. Hence sin carries with it two inalienable characters, first,
ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and second pollution (macula)."
The moral character of a man's actions is determined by the moral
state of his heart. The disposition to sin, or the habit of the soul
that leads to the sinful act, is itself also sin, Romans 6:12-17;
Galatians 5:17 & James 1:14-15.
The origin of sin is a mystery, and must for ever remain such to us.
It is plain that for some reason God has permitted sin to enter this
world, and that is all we know. His permitting it, however, in no way
makes God the author of sin.
Adam's sin, Genesis 3:1-6, consisted in his yielding to the
assaults of temptation and eating the forbidden fruit. It involved in
it, first, the sin of unbelief, virtually making God a liar; and
second, the guilt of disobedience to a positive command. By this sin he
became an apostate from God, a rebel in arms against his Creator. He
lost the favour of God and communion with him; his whole nature became
depraved, and he incurred the penalty involved in the covenant of works.
Original sin. "Our first parents being the root of all mankind,
the guilt of their sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and
corrupted nature were conveyed to all their posterity, descending from
them by ordinary generation." Adam was constituted by God the federal
head and representative of all his posterity, as he was also their
natural head, and therefore when he fell they fell with him, Romans
5:12-21 & I Corinthians 15:22-45. His probation was their
probation, and his fall their fall. Because of Adam's first sin all his
posterity came into the world in a state of sin and condemnation, first,
a state of moral corruption, and second, of guilt, as having
judicially imputed to them the guilt of Adam's first sin.
"Original sin" is frequently and properly used to denote only the
moral corruption of their whole nature inherited by all men from Adam.
This inherited moral corruption consists in, first, the loss of original
righteousness; and second, the presence of a constant proneness to
evil, which is the root and origin of all actual sin. It is called
"sin," Romans 6:12-17 & 7:5-17; the "flesh" Galatians 5:17-24,
"lust" James 1:14-15, the "body of sin" Romans 6:6, "ignorance,"
"blindness of heart," "alienation from the life of God" Ephesians
4:18-19. It influences and depraves the whole man, and its tendency is
still downward to deeper and deeper corruption, there remaining no
recuperative element in the soul. It is a total depravity, and it is
also universally inherited by all the natural descendants of Adam Romans
3:10-23; 5:12-21 & 8:7. Pelagians deny original sin, and regard
man as by nature morally and spiritually well; semi-Pelagians regard him
as morally sick; Augustinians, or, as they are also called, Calvinists,
regard man as described above, spiritually dead Ephesians 2:1 & I
 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,
In Matthew 5:17,
Jesus made it very clear that He did not come to destroy the Law or the
Prophets. But Jesus came to fulfill and finish the Law and the
Prophets. Please note here II Peter 1:21.
PETER 1:21...For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man:
but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
We see that it is the will of God that one of the ways in which he has spoken to His people is by the Holy Prophets.
II Peter 1:21
gives to us the argument that all Scripture is teleological in nature.
In that the teleological argument is a philosophical doctrine which
argues that all things gives evidence that there was an intelligent
designer who designed all things with a specific purpose in mind at the
moment of design. That without an intelligent designer, nothing can
In the Gospels, the Psalms and the Prophets are quoted quite
heavily and frequently. This gives evidence that the Heavenly Father
Himself is firmly regarded as the One who speaks in Scripture. The
point being, that this insight is not a theory which denies or excludes
the human authors. Meaning, these men are not introduced merely
indirectly as intermediaries, but directly as the true hands of what is
One of the numerous purposes of the life of Jesus, was to fulfil
the Prophetic Manuscripts which are spoken with Divine authority, and
which can be called directly the Word of God. In Biblical thinking is
quite incompatible with the concept of God that the event should lag
behind God's Word. That the full measure of fulfilment should must
needs be reached. God fulfils His Word by full actualisation.
The Old Testament Prophets are the mouth of God through which He speaks to mankind.
the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall
conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and
they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with
The name Emmanuel/Immanuel literally means the literal God the Father is living with us.
In the original Isaiah manuscript, it did not say "a virgin will
conceive," but that "the" virgin will conceive." Denoting a certain
preselected female for this event.
Here you have the very God, the Heavenly Father, stepping into the
events and affairs of man in the fleshly form of one Jesus Christ.
 Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife:
In verses 20 & 21 Joseph is given the definitive instruction to
take unto himself Mary to be his wife. In verse 21 Joseph is told to
call His name Jesus.
Verses 24 & 25 is a very interesting study in responding to an instruction and the reaction to that instruction.
 And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.
the wording of verse 25. Two specific statements stand out
about verse 25. First they did not consummate their marriage until
after the birth of Jesus. This is in conjunction to Isaiah 7:14. Then
secondly, as per the instructions of verse 21, Joseph and Mary name the
The wording of this verse confirms that Jesus was the first of many children which Joseph and Mary will parent.
1. Jesus was to be born in Bethlehem of Judea as per: Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1 & Luke 2:4-7.
2. Jesus was to be born of a virgin as per: Isaiah 7:14; Matthew 1:18 & Luke 1:26-35.