The Clear Word 

A Ministry Of Mid-State Ministries  




[1] And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him:
When ever one looks at the depiction of Christ delivering the sermon on the mount, He is always shown standing in front of hundreds if not thousands of people teaching at captivated audience.  This is not exactly the way in which it happened.
Look at the scriptures.  In Matthew 5:1, first Christ sees the multitudes.  The English word multitudes comes from a very interesting Greek word.  The Greek word is ochlos.  It means a very emotional or emotionally charged up crowd.  Ths is why Jesus had to get His disciples and go up on a mountain to get away from the crowd.  And then verse 2, tells us, that by the use of His mouth and His words, He began to teach them.


[2] And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,
Jesus opened His mouth.  This would mean that Jesus knew what He was about to say would be right and accurate.   This would mean the Jesus know that He could feel confident and bold in His teaching.

Jesus began to teach them with the spoken word of God.  Today, our spoken word is the Bible.  God has always wanted to get His word to His creation mankind.  And for the times in which we now life, God has chosen to convey His heart to ours through the pages of His written word, the Bible.


[3] Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
The first part of the Jesus' Sermon on the Mount is what is known as the Beatitudes in Matthew 5:4-12.  You will notice that the English word blessed is used a total of nine times in these verses.  The English word blessed comes from the Greek word makarios.  It has to do with being supremely happy. 
Makarios is used in the Beatitudes in Luke chapter 6 also.  And this Greek word is used frequently throughout the Gospel of Luke.  This Greek word is also found in I Timothy 1 :11 & 6:15.  This Greek word is found seven times in Revelation 1:3; 14:13; 16:15; 19:9; 20:6 & 22: 7 & 14.
What Jesus is about to do, is present a set of doctrinal/theological principles with a heavy dose of day-to-day practicalities which, when practiced on a consistent basis, will bring the practitioner a great deal of inner happiness.
In Matthew 5:3, the English word poor comes from the Greek word ptochos Here it is used as a metaphor to denote a humble spirit.  You will find this Greek word used as a metaphor also in Luke 6:20 & Revelation 3:17. 
This does not mean that poor people automatically are going to Heaven just because they are poor.  It has to do not with being poor in finances or possessions.  It has to do with being humble in heart, spirit & attitude.
Jesus demonstrated this very thing by washing the disciples feet the night before His crucifixion.  You see this in John 13:1-20.
In Matthew 5:3, Jesus is trying to convey that He is talking about the kind of humble spirit that only a true born again believer could have.  It is the kind of humility that person who is going to Heaven would have.


[4] Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.
In Matthew 5:4, the English word mourn comes from the Greek word pentheo.  It has to do with sadness due to loss in a death.
In Matthew 5:4, the English word comforted comes from the Greek word  parakaleo.  This is one of the names for Holy Spirit.  The One who comes along side to assist. 
Therefore, what is the comfort that is promised to believers when they loose a loved one due to death?  
Your answer is found in I Thessalonians 4:13-18.  This is the promise of the resurrection of the saints in the Rapture of the Church.  Jesus will come down from Heaven with the souls/spirits of the saints.  And then call their bodies out of the grave and reunite their bodies and souls back together again.  In verse 18, we as believers are to comfort one another with these words.
When ever I am asked to officiate a memorial service, at the graveside, I always conclude with I Thessalonians 4:13-18


[5] Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
In Matthew 5:5, the beatitudes continue.  This time Jesus is saying that the meek will inherit the earth.  In Matthew 5:5, the English word meek comes from the Greek word praus.
MEEK/MEEKNESS:  Meek or meekness is a calm temper of mind, not easily provoked James 3:13.  Peculiar promises are made to the meek Isaiah 66:2 & Matthew 5:5.  The cultivation of this spirit is enjoined Zephaniah 2:3; Colossians 3:12 & I Timothy 6:11,  and is exemplified in Christ Matthew 11:29, Abraham Genesis 13; 16:5-6;  Moses  Numbers 12:3;  David II Samuel 16:10-12; Zechariah 12:8 & Paul in I Corinthians 9:19.
Jesus said the meek will inherit the earth.  The English word inherit comes from the Greek word kleronomeo.  It has to do with the heir appointed or the heir apparent.  Which means, that those who are meek in Christ, are already guaranteed to be the heir appointed or heir apparent to the earth.


[6] Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. 
One of the many proofs that a person has turned from the darkness of the devil to the light of Christ and His Salvation, is that the new convert will experience an insatiable humger/thirst for that which is holy and righteous in the sight of God.

Matthew 5:6 is one of those verses that you just don't hurry through.  You need to stay for a while and see just what the Lord Jesus is talking about.
First, let us particularize the verse.  First, you will notice that Matthew 5:6 is not an open universal invitation.  Unlike John 3:16, Matthew 5:6 is not open to the world and to whom so ever will, let him/her come. 
Also, we need to confirm the wording of Matthew 5:6.  Does it say ..."Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness?... No.  It does not say that.  What Matthew 5:9 does say, is ..."Blessed are they who "DO" hunger and thirst after righteousness"...
That little two letter word do sets their entire tone and perspective of the thought Jesus is trying to convey in this verse.  The word do adds a heavy emotional impact which Jesus is trying to muster. 
The purpose of putting the word do in this verse, is to separate the lukewarm, halfhearted  Church member, from the real fervent believer who truly does love Christ and wants a very close walk and fellowship with Him.  The word do lends to this verse the much need and required intensity and sincerity Jesus will need to impact His hearers with the full scope of the power of this particular thought in Matthew 5:6. The word do eliminates the fakes and phonies.  Matthew 5:6 is for real and true born again believers only.  Not for those who casually play Church only on Sunday's
In the Greek New Testament, the English word hunger, as used here in this verse, comes from the Greek word peinao.   It means a deep imbedded craving.  Which means, Matthew 5:6 is only for those who have a truly sincere craving for Jesus Christ and His holiness.
In John 6:33-51, Jesus defines exactly what this true and sincere believer is seeking.  This true believer is seeking the deepest and most intimate relationship with Jesus Christ that defies even the best of human description.  Jesus Christ Himself has become their deepest hunger.  Not what He can give them.  This believer wants blessings from the heart of God, not the hand of God.
The English word thirst comes from the Greek word dipsao.   In the days of Jesus, many of the people of this region we nomadic type people.  Many of them lived in the desert.  For these people, water was more precious than silver or gold.  Without water they would survive the desert. 
However, Jesus is talking about the hungering and thirsting of the human heart/soul.  The kind of hunger and thirst that a true born again believer has for their Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.  We are not talking about Laodicean Church members as in Revelation 3:14-19. This time we are discussing the real thing.  In John 4:14 & 7:38, Jesus gives us a deep and real definition of what He is speaking of.
This then brings us to the next question.  What is this believer hungering/thirsting for?  They are hungering for the true righteousness which only can be found in Jesus Christ our Lord.
The English word righteousness comes from the Greek word dikaiosune.  It comes from the same Greek word from which we get the word justification. 
In Christian thought the idea of righteousness contains both a permanent and a changing element. The fixed element is the will to do right; the changing factor is the conception of what may be right at different times and under different circumstances. Throughout the entire course of Christian revelation we discern the emphasis on the first factor. To be sure, in the days of later Pharisaism righteousness came to be so much a matter of externals that the inner intent was often lost sight of altogether Matthew 23:23,  but, on the whole and in the main, Christian thought in all ages has recognized as the central element in righteousness the intention to be and do right. This common spirit binds together the first worshippers of God and the latest. Present-day conceptions of what is right differ by vast distances from the conceptions of the earlier Hebrews, but the intentions of the first worshippers are as discernible as are those of the doers of righteousness in the present day.


[7] Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
TEMPT: The English word tempt comes from the Greek word ekpeirazo.  It means to put to trial; to prove; to test; to try. To lead, or endeavor to lead, into evil; to entice to what is wrong; to seduce. To endeavor to persuade; to induce; to invite; to incite; to provoke; to instigate. To endeavor to accomplish or reach; to attempt.
Notice in this verse two specific truths which Jesus Himself states.  First, is that He is God.  The devil is tempting Jesus.  And Jesus tells the devil that he should not tempt God.
Second, is that the Lord Jesus is the God of the devil.  Even though the devil, in Isaiah 14:12-17, attempting an unsuccessful coup against God, this does  not mean that God ceases being the God of the devil.  And that someday, this rebellious devil will have divine retribution imposed upon him as per Revelation 20:10.


[8] Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
Now Jesus takes us to yet another level of living for Him in Matthew 5:8.  That being purity. But notice Jesus says pure in heart.  What He is saying is, that if your heart is pure, then will also be your actions.
In the Greek New Testament, the English word pure comes from the katharos/kaqaroV.  It has to do with that which is pure in the sight of God. It has to do with true Christlike holiness as is found in the true Written Word of God, and not some manmade theological tradition.
The question is, who is pure?  Is it the religious, the self-righteous, the denominationalized, or good Church members or workers?  There is nothing that a person can do in order to make themselves pure and holy in the sight of a pure and holy God. 


[9] Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.
In Matthew 5:9, Jesus brings up yet another challenging level of Christian servitude.  And that being those who promote peace. 
In this verse, the English word peacemaker  comes from the Greek word eirenopoios/eirhnopoioV.  This has to do with a person who wishes to create peace between countries and/or persons.  What Jesus is teaching here, is that person who is truly born again wants life and the world to be at peace. 
Notice as well that peacemakers will be called the children of God.  The English word called, as used here in Matthew 5:9, comes from the Greek word kaleo/kalew. As used in this particular verse, it would have more to do with being recognized by association.  The world-at-large would recognize believers because they would attempt to bring peace just like Jesus would do.
The English word son comes from the Greek word huios/uioV.  In most cases it would be the male biological offspring of a man.  However, as used here in Matthew 5:9, it would mean one made in the likeness of.  As new believers in Christ, we are remade in the image of God Himself.  And we do/say things just like God would do/say.  We see in II Peter 1:4, that at the moment of salvation we are filled with the new nature of God.  This would mean, that the nature of the world, the flesh and the devil are then taken out of us, and the new nature of God Himself is then placed within us.
At that moment we then take on the nature of God.  We start to see things like God sees them.  Understand things like God would understand them.  React and says things like God would react and say things.  We then would take on the likes/dislikes of God and we would then start to act just like God.  After all, as new believers in Christ, we are filled with the new nature of God.  And it would be only normal that we start acting just like God.
And one of those things is that we now want the world to be is at peace.  Here is how God Himself feels about world peace.  Romans 2:10, 8:6, 10:15,14:17-19; I Corinthians 7:15; I Corinthians14:33; Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 2:14-15, 4:3; I Thessalonians 5:13; I Peter 3:11.  Therefore, one of the numerous traits of the new believer, is that they not only want peace, but they are also a conveyer of it.


[10] Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
The English word persecuted comes a very interesting Greek word.  It is the Greek word dioko/diwkw.  It means that though persecuted, the person in question is determined to continue on in the faith with total inhibitions. 
Jesus is quite specific about what He is talking about.  He is speaking of those who suffer because they live and portray the holiness of Jesus Christ in their lives.
In most cases, we would expect such persecution to come from the unsaved world.  And this is not to say that the unsaved world cannot be quite vicious towards those of us of faith.  However, in my decades as a Pastor, I found that over 95% of my persecutions came from those who name Jesus Christ as their personal LORD and Savior. 
Though at times I met with the most bitter of hostilities from the world, the flesh and the devil, it was those who claim to know Christ, within the Church walls, who were my worst of adversaries.  And in the final end, it was those who claim to be saved, born again believers, who were my final destruction.  Look at the life of Jesus Himself.  It was the religiosity of His day who were so insistent on seeing Him on the cross.  And I can quite assure you, that two thousand years later, this situation has not changed.  It has not changed at all.  Look at what Jesus Himself said in Matthew 10:36.  And then here a special note from II Timothy 3:12.
I now want to look at the three English word ...for theirs is...  From the Greek New Testament, we are given the idea that the true saints of God are persecuted, because they exhibit the true idealology of the true Jesus Christ.  This is not speaking of unsaved Church members nor denominationalized religionist.  Here Jesus is speaking about the real thing.  The true.  The loyal. The faithful born again believers.  Those who proudly wear the blood stains of Jesus.
In Matthew 5:10, the phrase ...for theirs is... could be better translated ...for this is their personal indication...  Which then would mean, that the persecution is an indication that they are truly a part of the kingdom of heaven.  The persecution is an indication that they are the real thing in the eyes of God...and the eyes of the world.
Therefore, Matthew 5:10 could be looked at this way...Deeply happy are those who are persecuted for the sake of their righteousness in Jesus Christ.  For this is a true indication that they are truly saved, born again, and going to Heaven.


[11] Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 
Matthew 5:11 is one of those verses which does not require Greek exposition for the KJV and the Greek New Testament are in perfect coincidence on this matter. 
Jesus is saying that if people are mean to you.  If people are cruel to you.  If people verbally assault you and tell lies on you because of your faithful allegiance to the person of Jesus Christ.  Then be happy and rejoice.  Because the world, the flesh and the devil all know, that you are the real thing.  A real true born again believer in Jesus Christ.
 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.


[12] Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

In this verse, Jesus is stating that should you be persecuted or suffer retaliation for your faith in Christ, that we should rejoice and be very happy. 
The English word reward, as used in this verse, comes from the Greek word misthos/misqoV.   It is a Greek word which has to do with guaranteed wages.  Jesus is telling us here that those who suffer because of persecution are guaranteed wages when entering Heaven.  Please note here II Timothy 3:12 & Hebrews 11:36-40.


Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

In verses 13 & 14, Jesus speaks of believers being salt and light to a lost and dying world. 
The English word salt, as used in Matthew 5:13, comes from the Greek word halas.  It can mean salt or it can also mean that which is sensible.
SALT: Salt is used to season food in Job 6:6.  It is mixed with with the fodder of cattle in Isaiah 30:24.  All meat-offerings were seasoned with salt in Leviticus 2:13.  To eat salt with one is to partake of his hospitality, to derive subsistence from him; and hence he who did so was bound to look after his host's interests in Ezra 4:14.A "covenant of salt" in Numbers 18:19 & II Chronicles 13:5 was a covenant of perpetual obligation. New-born children were rubbed with salt in Ezekiel 16:4.
 Disciples are likened unto salt, with reference to its cleansing and preserving uses in Matthew 5:13. When Abimelech took the city of Shechem, he sowed the place with salt, that it might always remain a barren soil in Judges 9:45.
Jesus, in this verse, is portraying the witness factor of born again believers with a very simple substance called salt.  Salt can be a medicine, a preserver, or a flavorer.  But we do know that when you can always tell when it is in food and when it is not, especially in large quantities.  Salt is always an ongoing pantry staple which means it is always available. 
Jesus, in this verse, is trying to use salt as a pictorial of the believer and the value of their witness for Christ.  When salt is at it's strongest peak of performance, it can be a rather strong substance.
However, there could be times that a believer will allow copious amounts of the world, the flesh and the devil to get into their lives.  And because of this, their Christian witness is severely tarnished or damaged.  Leaving it ineffective.  The strong salt, has now lost it's savor.
Jesus is not talking about salvation here in this verse.  He is speaking of Christian witness effectiveness.  We are not speaking of losing one's salvation, we are speaking of one losing their effective Christian witness due to allowing the influence of the world to get into their lives. 
In summation, if your Christian life is tarnished before men, then so will be your Christian witness.  A pure Christian can only come from a pure Christian heart that has a pure Christian life.
The saying truly is true.  The world can see a sermon much easier than it can hear one.


Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.
In verse 14, Jesus continues his theme on world evangelism.  In verse 13, Jesus uses the analogy of salt.  Here in verse 14, Jesus will use the analogy of light.

Notice if you will, that Jesus makes it personal.  He does not say the Church or the national Church denomination is the light of the world, but that we as individuals are to be this light.
The English word light, as used here in Matthew 5:14, comes from the Greek word  phos.   It is a very powerful light used to eliminate all darkness.  It can also means to bring the light of knowledge where once was the darkness of ignorance and lack of understanding once reigned supreme.
The offspring of the divine command in Genesis 1:3.  "All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light" as in I Kings 11:36; Isaiah 58:8; Esther 8:16 & Psalms 97:11.  Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts in Psalms 119:105; Isaiah 8:20 & Matthew 4:16.  There is also the glorious inheritance of the redeemed in Colossians 1:12 & Revelation 21:23-25. God is said to dwell in light inaccessible in I Timothy 6:16. It frequently signifies instruction in Matthew 5:16 &  John 5:35.  In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the "Sun of righteousness" in Malachi 4:2; Luke 2:32 &  John 1:7-9. God is styled "the Father of lights" in James 1:17.  It is used of angels in II Corinthians 11:14  and of John the Baptist, who was a "burning and a shining light" in John 5:35 and of all true disciples, who are styled "the light of the world" in Matthew 5:14.
Verses 13 & 14 not only deal with the purity of our testimonies, but also the character and integrity of our testimonies.  If the salt has lost it's savor.  If the light is hidden and cannot be seen.  Jesus is trying to teach us that living a good testimony is far better than talking a good testimony.


[15] Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.
This verse requires very little commentary or hermeneutical efforts.  A person of reasonable intelligence, who has the goal of lighting a dark room, does not light a lamp and then put the lamp into an obstructed position of being put under a bushel basket whereby the light is totally obstructed.
The lamp in question would be an Aladdin type of lamp.  Many times these lamps came complete with a pedestal upon which to set the lamp to help it give off more light.
The bushel in question in this verse, is what today we would call a bushel basket used to carry produce in. 
In this scenario, the light is our gospel testimony for Christ.  The bushel basket is human worldliness and carnality.  You cannot have a truly effective witness for Christ if you hide your testimony for Christ under the bushel basket of the world, the flesh and carnality.


[16] Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
At times in a verse, it is just one word which makes the verse quite clear.  Matthew 5:16 is such a verse.  In this verse, it is the English word glorify.
The English word glorify comes from the Greek word doxazo.  It means to honor or exalt God.  What Jesus is saying, is that when the world sees a person who at one time was deep into sin and being lost without Christ, and then they see their new consistent life for Jesus Christ, they will only be able to say that God did this transformation and not man.  It had to be God Himself.


[17] Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
When ever someone withing the Church world begins to demonstrate independent thinking, those within the denominational corporations begin to feel uneasy.  They begin to wonder if this new and independent thought will violate the status quo of their rigid and preset liturgical systems of thought whether this line of thought is Biblical or not.
In the days of Jesus, the religiosity of His day had their worries about the teachings of Jesus.  Jesus quickly had followers by the thousands at one time.  Instead of listening to Jesus and learning, the religious corporations of Jesus' day wanted to try to find a way to kill Him.
Their major question was what was Jesus going to teach about Moses and the law.  You see this in John 8:5.  They were not concerned about the young girl in question.  They were concerned about their system of liturgical corporations.
In Matthew 5:17, Jesus gives them an answer which they will not be able to understand.  That being, He did not come to destroy the Old Testament.  He actually came to finish it.  And this finishing would take place on the cross when He would say the words  ..."it is finished!"


[17] Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
When ever someone withing the Church world begins to demonstrate independent thinking, those within the denominational corporations begin to feel uneasy.  They begin to wonder if this new and independent thought will violate the status quo of their rigid and preset liturgical systems of thought whether this line of thought is Biblical or not.
In the days of Jesus, the religiosity of His day had their worries about the teachings of Jesus.  Jesus quickly had followers by the thousands at one time.  Instead of listening to Jesus and learning, the religious corporations of Jesus' day wanted to try to find a way to kill Him.
Their major question was what was Jesus going to teach about Moses and the law.  You see this in John 8:5.  They were not concerned about the young girl in question.  They were concerned about their system of liturgical corporations.
In Matthew 5:17, Jesus gives them an answer which they will not be able to understand.  That being, He did not come to destroy the Old Testament.  He actually came to finish it.  And this finishing would take place on the cross when He would say the words  ..."it is finished!"


[19] Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

Here in Matthew 5:19,  we see that the Sermon on the Mount has a curse and a blessing.  There is little need in verse 19 for Greek exposition in this verse.  The meaning is very clear indeed.
If you do not keep and practice the sayings of Jesus, and if you encourage others to also not keep the words and sayings of Jesus, the word which Jesus used was least.  It means, the person in question is not what Jesus is looking for.  For only and unsaved, unregenerated person would do such a thing.  Does Jesus still love them? Yes.  Does Jesus still want them to be saved?  Yes.  Would Jesus still save them if they repented with an earnest heart? Yes.  But until then, they are not what Jesus is looking for.
The English word great comes from the Greek word megas.  It means exceedingly great and strong.  Therefore, what Jesus is teaching, is that when you live by the words of Jesus, and teach others to do so, you are then great in Heaven and in the eyes of God.


[20] For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.
Over the years, numerous, and I will give them each the benefit of a doubt, ministers have used this verse in a most extortioners mannerism.  Bringing undue fear a dread on those sitting in the pews Sunday after Sunday. 
They begin their so-called sermons with how the religiosity of the days of Jesus were such holy and Pius men.  How that their very presence exuded such religious dedication and fervor.  And that if we do not do better than they did, we will all go to Hell.
This could be no further from the truth.  The Religious corporation in the days of Jesus were corrupt and even Jesus Himself called them a den of thieves Matthew 21:13.  This is the same religious corporation that though they knew Jesus was the Messiah John 3:2, still plotted to murder their own Messiah knowing that He was the Messiah. 
The religiosity in the days of Jesus based their walk with God on the outward appearance.  Their gaudy religious apparel.  Their gaudy prayers in the market place that were long and loud.  Their public display of the giving of tithes and offerings.  It was all a superficial act. 
What Jesus is saying in this verse, is that He is not interested in the superficial as are the religiosity of His day, instead He wants true believers who love Him from their hearts and souls.  And whose worship is real and genuine. 


[21] Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:
In verses 21-26, Jesus is attempting to make a point about the difference between the law of the physical and the law of the heart/soul.
Here Jesus is referring to their Hebrew Old Testament upbringing.  That being, they have heard it said or taught in the Old Testament.
The English word kill comes from the Greek word phoneuo.  It means a murder which took place in an illegal yet premeditated fashion.  That the person in question had time to reconsider his/her actions and not commit this murder.  It does not have to do with accidental killing or killing unawares.  Also, this is not actions committed in a military combat situation or in a law enforcement situation. This is premeditated, malice aforethought, murder.
The English word danger comes from the Greek word enochos.  It means being subject to or entitled to.
The English word judgement comes from the Greek word krisis.   It mens the divine relative corresponding judgment due.


[22] But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.
RACA:  Raca can mean vain, empty or worthless.  RACA is found only in Matthew 5:22.    The Jews used it as a word of mockery & contempt. It is derived from a root meaning "to spit."

JEREMIAH 7:31...And they have built the high places of Tophet, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire; which I commanded them not, neither came it into my heart.
Genna is a place n the Valley of Hinnom where human sacrifices had been offered and it was a continuous burning garbage dump.  On numerous occasions the Valley of Himmom or Genna was used as an illustration of hell.
MARK 9:44...Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.
JAMES 3:6...And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell.
REVELATION 20:14... And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.


[23] Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;
The time has come for you to perform some act of worship toward God.  In this verse it is the act of bringing one's own sacrifice to the temple to be offered up


[24] Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.
In today's religious society, we could be speaking of a  Bible reading/study, prayer or even attending Church.  It could be a gathered corporate Bible Study among several believers.  And suddenly, God brings to your remembrance that you and a brother/sister in Christ, a fellow born again believer, are having personal issues between the two of you.   Leave this event.  Go to this person.  Go to this person now.  And resolve these issues.  Resolve them now.


[25] Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.
The judge spoken of here is an actual physical person who is an official officer of the court. 
At times when disputes eventually come to the attention of the courts, it is possible that things become so out of control that it would be possible for the defendant to be placed in the prison.  Jesus is saying that two born again believers should be able to resolve their differences without the aid of the courts. 
Proverbs 25:8...Go not forth hastily to strive, lest thou know not what to do in the end thereof, when thy neighbour hath put thee to shame.
Under Roman Law, an adversary could force his opponent to go before the judge.  However, the smart thing to do, is that the two opponents come to an agreement on the way to court.
Luke 12:58-59...When thou goest with thine adversary to the magistrate, as thou art in the way, give diligence that thou mayest be delivered from him; lest he hale thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and the officer cast thee into prison.  [59] I tell thee, thou shalt not depart thence, till thou hast paid the very last mite.
I Corinthians 6:1-8...Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints? [2] Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters? [3] Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life?  [4] If then ye have judgments of things pertaining to this life, set them to judge who are least esteemed in the church. [5] I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is not a wise man among you? no, not one that shall be able to judge between his brethren? [6] But brother goeth to law with brother, and that before the unbelievers. [7] Now therefore there is utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one with another. Why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be defrauded? [8] Nay, ye do wrong, and defraud, and that your brethren.
He we learn something about Jesus.  That being, not only could Jesus be Holy and Heavenly, He would also be very pragmatic and down to earth about day-to-day life and business.
This verse would imply the willingness of a creditor to come to terms with a debtor in order to keep this matter out of the courts.


[26] Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.
FARTHING:  A far'-thing is the rendering of two words in the Greek of the New Testament, assarion, and kodrantes, Latin quadrans. The assarion was the tenth part of the denarius, and hence in value about one penny or two centuries The quadrans was the fourth part of the Roman as, and worth only about three mills, or less than the English farthing, and is the only term rendered farthing by the American Standard Revised Version. It occurs in Matthew 5:26; 10:29; Mark 12:42 & Luke 12:6..
Jesus is pointing out that when one is assigned to debtor's prison, you do not get out until the very last penny owed is paid in full. 


[27] Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:
ADULTRY: Adultery is conjugal, sexual & marital  infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit sexual  intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a great social wrong, as well as a great sin. The Mosaic law, Numbers 5:11-31, prescribed that the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal of the "water of jealousy." There is, however, no recorded instance of the application of this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various regulations with the view of discovering the guilty party, and of bringing about a divorce. It has been inferred from John 8:1-11,  that this sin became very common during the age preceding the destruction of Jerusalem. Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are spoken of as adultery spiritually, Jeremiah 3:6-9; Ezekiel 16:32; Hosea 1:2-3 & Revelation 2:22. An apostate Church is an adulteress as per Isaiah 1:21; Ezekiel 23:4-7 & 37. And, the Jews are styled "an adulterous generation" in Matthew 12:39. 


[28] But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.
LUST:  In the Bible, lust is a sinful longing.  Lust is the inward sin which leads to the falling away from God as per Romans 1:21.   "Lust,  which is one of the origins of sin, pride being the other, has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the center of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity."  Please not, that in Mark 4:19, "lusts" are objects of desire.
In the days of the Old Testament Law, sin was a matter of the actions of the flesh.  As long as a man or woman did not actually physically touch each other, there was no sin.  However, Jesus is teaching that sin is not a matter of the flesh but a matter of the heart.  The flesh only responds to the heart/mind.  Control the heart/mind, and you have just controlled the flesh. 


[29] And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
The words of Jesus in this narrative, is not literal but attention.  His suggestion of physical mutilation for spiritual/religious reasons is metaphorical as opposed to literal. 
In the days of Jesus, the influence of the Greco-Roman society concerning the absolute perfection of the human body and human beauty was quite prevalent.  The point Jesus is attempting to make, is that Eternal Life is far more permanent, then temporary physical beauty and perfection. 
HELL:  In the Bible, the English word hell comes from the Greek word Gehenna.  Gehenna,  in most of its occurrences in the Greek New Testament, designates the place of the rebellous lost as per Matthew 23:33.   The fearful nature of their condition there is described in various figurative expressions as in Matthew 8:12; 13:42; 22:13; 25:30 & Luke 16:24. 


[30] And if thy right hand offend thee, cut if off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
For this particular verse may I refer you to my notes in Matthew 5:29.


[31] It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:
DEUTERONOMY 33:13-19...If any man take a wife, and go in unto her, and hate her, [14] And give occasions of speech against her, and bring up an evil name upon her, and say, I took this woman, and when I came to her, I found her not a maid: [15] Then shall the father of the damsel, and her mother, take and bring forth the tokens of the damsel's virginity unto the elders of the city in the gate:  [16] And the damsel's father shall say unto the elders, I gave my daughter unto this man to wife, and he hateth her; [17] And, lo, he hath given occasions of speech against her, saying, I found not thy daughter a maid; and yet these are the tokens of my daughter's virginity. And they shall spread the cloth before the elders of the city.  [18] And the elders of that city shall take that man and chastise him;  [19] And they shall amerce him in an hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel: and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days.


[32] But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.
Divorce is the dissolution of the marriage tie was regulated by the Mosaic law Deuteronomy 24:1-4. The Jews, after the Captivity, were required to dismiss the foreign women they had married contrary to the law Ezra 10;11-19.  Christ limited the permission of divorce to the single case of adultery. It seems that it was not uncommon for the Jews at that time to dissolve the union on very slight pretenses Matthew 5:31-32; 19:1-9; Mark 10:2-12 & Luke 16:18.   These precepts given by Christ regulate the law of divorce in the Christian Church.

In the days of the OLD TESTAMENT, and the days of Jesus, if a man decided that he did not want his wife anymore, he could, falsely, accuse of being involved in an extramarital affair, or one their wedding night he would decide that she is not going to be able to please him, so he would accuse her of not being a virgin when they married.  Therefore, divorces were easily and readily granted. 


[33] Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:

You will notice that the narrative about oaths and vows comes after the narrative about divorce. 
This would be because that when a young couple is standing up to take they wedding vows, these vows are not to each other but to God Himself.  The couple should bear this in mind when taking their vows.
The same of the Vow of the Nazarite in Numbers chapter 6.  The Nazarite Vow is a vow whereby the person taking it, sanctifies themselves unto the Holiness of God for a specified amount of time.  This will also include service unto God.  Do not ever take the Vow of the Nazarite until you know for sure what you are doing.  Just time wedding vows, God takes the Vow of the Nazarite very seriously. 


[34] But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:
The message in which Jesus is attempting to convey to those who will listen and take heed, is that in the emotions of a moment, there are those, though well meaning, will swear by God, Heaven, the angels, or even by their own blood, a vow or promise to God. 
The warning of Jesus is that of perjury.  For a person to break their vow, or just forget that they ever took the vow, in the eyes of God is an act of perjury toward God. 

Before a person takes a vow or promise before God, they need to understand what perjury is.  They need to understand that not only is God listening to this vow or promise, but that He is taking notes.  The person taking the vow may, as time goes forth, forget their vow to God, God does not forget. 
Exodus 20:7...Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
Leviticus 19:12...And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.
Deuteronomy 16:16-19...If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong; [17] Then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before the LORD, before the priests and the judges, which shall be in those days; [18] And the judges shall make diligent inquisition: and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; [19] Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you.


[35] Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.
May I refer you to my thoughts in Matthew 5:34.


[36] Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.

May I refer you to my thoughts in Matthew 5:34.


[37] But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

Jesus is teaching that oaths should not be on the spur of the moment emotions.  Instead, the oath taker should remember that this is a vow to the very God Himself.  Therefore, the oath should be well thought out and prayed about.  Remember, that whether it is the wedding vow, the Nazarite Vow, or any type of vow, you are making this vow to God Himself.  And God does not nor will not ever forget the vow you have just made. 


[38] Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:
Exodus 21:24...Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
Exodus 21:24 is what is known as lex talionis.  This would provide for the ending of feuds.  However, Jesus now wants to show another way to end feuds.


[39] But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.
The key word in understanding this verse is the word retaliation.  Jesus is teaching us not to go into our own personal retaliation against those who would wish to harm us.
Instead, we use peaceful resistence.  That being, it someone intends to harm us, we do not harm them in return.


[40] And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also.
What Jesus is attempting to convey in this verse, is that if a person feels that they have a grievance against you, do not be afraid to literally give them the shirt off you back if that is what it will take to make them satisfied in this incident.
COAT: The tunic worn like the shirt next the skin Exodus 28:4; 29:5;. Leviticus 16:4 & II Samuel 15:32.  The "coats of skins" prepared by God for Adam and Eve were probably nothing more than aprons Genesis 3:21. This tunic was sometimes woven entire without a seam John 19:23.  It was also sometimes of "many colours" Genesis 37:3. The "fisher's coat" of John 21:7  was obviously an outer garment or cloak, as was also the "coat" made by Hannah for Samuel I Samuel 2:19. 
CLOKE:  An upper garment, "an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to the ankles, but without sleeves" Isaiah 59:17.  The word so rendered is elsewhere rendered "robe" or "mantle." It was worn by the high priest under the ephod  Exodus 28:31,  by kings and others of rank I Samuel 15:27; Job 1:20 2:12 and by women II Samuel 13:18.

The word translated "cloke" simply means outer garment, in Matthew 5:40,  is in its plural form used of garments in general Matthew 17:2 & 26:65. The cloak mentioned here and in Luke 6:29 was the Greek himation, Latin pallium, and consisted of a large square piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the abba of the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor  Exodus 22:26.  But the coat or tunic mentioned in Matthew 5:40 could not.

The cloak which Paul "left at Troas" II Timothy 4:13 was the Roman paenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling as a protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed that what Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version the word used means a bookcase.


[41] And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.
In the days of Jesus and the Roman Empire, a Roman soldier had the Imperial and judicial right to grab a Jewish citizen, at random, and make that citizen carry his armor for one mile.  The Jews felt this was a degradation and disgrace to their culture.
Jesus taught them to not only go one mile with the soldier, but to freely volunteer to go yet another mile with him making it two miles.


[42] Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.
This verse has to do with the granting of loans around the time of the SABBATICAL YEAR and/or YEAR of JUBILEE.  Lenders knew that as the SABBATICAL YEAR and/or YEAR of JUBILEE approached, that at that time all loans were to be forgiven and written off the books.  This would mean a great loss for the lender.  Therefore, as the SABBATICAL YEAR and/or YEAR of JUBILEE approached, lenders would not issue loans.  Jesus taught them to granT the loans anyway.  The God who demanded the forgiveness, would protect them from their losses. 
Deuteronomy 15:9-10...Beware that there be not a thought in thy wicked heart, saying, The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand; and thine eye be evil against thy poor brother, and thou givest him nought; and he cry unto the LORD against thee, and it be sin unto thee.  [10] Thou shalt surely give him, and thine heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto him: because that for this thing the LORD thy God shall bless thee in all thy works, and in all that thou puttest thine hand unto.

Deuteronomy 31:9-10...And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, which bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel. [10] And Moses commanded them, saying, At the end of every seven years, in the solemnity of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles,


[43] Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.
Deuteronomy 23:3-6...An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD; even to their tenth generation shall they not enter into the congregation of the LORD for ever:  [4] Because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor of Pethor of Mesopotamia, to curse thee. [5] Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee.  [6] Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever.


[44] But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;
Leviticus 19:16-18...Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people: neither shalt thou stand against the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD. [17] Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thine heart: thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him. [18] Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.


[45] That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
This is a teaching that you will find nowhere in the Old Testament.  First, it is not a question of if you are a child of Abraham or of Moses.  The question is, are you a child of God the Heavenly Father. 
Jesus, still teaching on forgiving and treating well your enemies, reminds them, that though not all the world are saved, born again believers, God our Heavenly Father still sees to it that not only the righteous, but the unrighteous still receive His sunshine and His rain just like those who are saved, born again believers.
Part of the new nature in Christ,  II Peter 1:4,  is how the new convert treats his enemies. 


[46] For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?
II Peter 1:4...Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.
Jesus is now about to conclude the summary He has been building.  That being, if you can only love those who love you, you have proven nothing.  The challenge which Jesus is presenting, is that if you have the new divine nature of Jesus Christ, as a truly saved born again Christ would have as per II Peter 1:4, then loving those who hate you will be the true desire of your heart.
Psalms 22:18...They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.
Isaiah 53:12...Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

Jesus suffered many things at the hand of His enemies.  When His scourgers were done with Him Jesus unrecognizable.  Yet, after all of this, all that Jesus could say was:Luke 23:34...Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.
Isaiah 53:3-10...He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. [4] Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. [5] But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. [6] All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. [7] He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. [8] He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken.  [9] And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.  [10] Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.